Properties of fabrics

Description

The influence of chemical composition and molecular arrangement of yarn and fibre properties and fabric structure on the physical properties of textile fabrics; the different fibre types, their physical and chemical characteristics and different material characteristics; the materials used in different processes and the effect on materials as they are processed. 

Alternative labels

properties of textile fibres
properties of yarns
structure and properties of fabrics
physical and chemical properties of fabrics
structure and properties of fibres
structure and properties of yarns

Skill type

knowledge

Skill reusability level

cross-sector

Relationships with occupations

Essential knowledge

Properties of fabrics is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:

Clothing development manager: Clothing development managers define product concepts that are consistent with target consumer and overall marketing strategy. They receive scientific findings and specifications in order to lead the briefing and implementation of all relevant seasonal and strategic concepts, including distribution by channel, product, colour introductions, and merchandised assortments. They ensure realisation and execution within budget. They manage and execute the product line and category life cycle from concept determination through sales and distribution, contribution in research of market, industry trends to influence category concepts and products.
Textile quality technician: Textile quality technicians perform physical laboratory tests on textile materials and products. They compare textile materials and products to standards and interpret results.
Textile pattern making machine operator: Textile pattern making machine operators create patterns, designs and decoration for textiles and fabrics using machines and equipment. They choose which materials to use and check the quality of the textiles both before and after their work.
Textile designer: Textile designers conceptualise textile products considering visual communication and functional performance.
Textile chemical quality technician: Textile chemical quality technicians perform chemical laboratory tests on textile materials and products. They interpret results and support colouration and finishing of textiles.
Textile dyeing technician: Textile dyeing technicians perform operations related to setting up dyeing processes.
Yarn spinner: Yarn spinners convert fibres into yarns.
Textile chemist: Textile chemists coordinate and supervise chemical processes for textiles like yarn and fabric forming such as dyeing and finishing.
Dressmaker: Dressmakers design, make or fit, alter, repair tailored, bespoke or hand-made garments from textile fabrics, light leather, fur and other material for women and children. They produce made-to-measure wearing apparel according to customer’s or garment manufacturer’s specifications. They are able to read and understand size charts, details surrounding finished measurements etc.
Weaving machine supervisor: Weaving machine supervisors monitor the weaving process. They operate the weaving process at automated machines (from silk to carpet, from flat to Jacquard). They monitor fabric quality and condition of mechanical machines such as woven fabrics for clothing, home-tex or technical end uses. They carry out maintenance works on machines that convert yarns into fabrics such as blankets, carpets, towels and clothing material. They repair loom malfunctions as reported by the weaver, and complete loom check out sheets.
Textile product developer: Textile product developers innovate and perform product design of apparel textiles, home textiles, and technical textiles (e.g. agriculture, safety, construction, medicine, mobile tech, environmental protection, sports, etc.). They apply scientific and technical principles to develop innovative textile products.
Embroiderer: Embroiderers puch designs and decorate textile surfaces by hand or by using an embroidery machine. They apply a range of traditional stitching techniques to produce intricate designs on clothing, accessories, and home decor items. Professional embroiderers combine traditional sewing skills with current software programs to design and construct embellishments on an item.
Textile process controller: Textile process controllers perform textile process operations, technical functions in various aspects of design, production and quality control of textile products, and cost control for processes. They use computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) tools in order to ensure conformity of entire production process to specifications. They compare and exchange individual processes with other departments (e.g cost calculation office) and initiate appropriate actions. They analyse the structure and properties of raw materials used in textiles and assist to prepare specifications for their production, analyse and interpret test data.
Sewing machine operator: Sewing machine operators tend specific sewing machines in the industrial production chain of wearing apparel. They perform operations such as joining, assembling, reinforcing, repairing, and altering of wearing apparel.
Textile technologist: Textile technologists develop and supervise production systems for textiles.
Tailor: Tailors design, make or fit, alter, repair tailored, bespoke or hand-made garments from textile fabrics, light leather, fur and other material, or make hats or wigs for men. They produce made-to-measure wearing apparel according to customer’s or garment manufacturer’s specifications. They are able to read and understand size charts, details surrounding finished measurements etc.
Clothing fashion designer: Fashion designers create concepts and make sketches by hand or using softwares of their creative ideas. They analyse and interpret fashion trends in order to propose new ideas with high aesthetical value. They perform forecasting and market research to put together collections. They build collection lines by operating mood or concept boards, colour palettes, materials, drawings and sketches considering among others ergonomical criteria, etc.
Clothing alteration machinist: Clothing alteration machinists ensure the alteration of finished garments in line with business demands. They are responsible for the quality of any alterations or customisations and brand generic stock in line with customer branding guidelines.
Embroidery machine operator: Embroidery machine operators decorate wearing apparel by tending embroidery machines varying in their technology in order to embroider and ornamental wearing apparel.
Screen making technician: Screen making technicians engrave or etch screens for textile printing. 
Textile sourcing merchandiser: Textile sourcing merchandisers organise efforts for textile producers from fibre to final products.

Optional knowledge

Properties of fabrics is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.

Weaver: Weavers operate the weaving process at traditional hand powered weaving machines (from silk to carpet, from flat to Jacquard). They monitor fabric quality and condition of machines such as woven fabrics for clothing, home-tex or technical end uses. They carry out  mechanic works on machines that convert yarns into fabrics such as blankets, carpets, towels and clothing material. They repair loom malfunctions as reported by the weaver, and complete loom check out sheets.
Clothing product grader: Clothing product graders produce patterns in different sizes (i.e. scaled-up and scaled-down) to reproduce the same wearing apparel in different sizes. They draft patterns by hand or using software following size charts.
Laundry worker: Laundry workers operate and monitor machines that use chemicals to wash or dry-clean articles such as cloth and leather garments, linens, drapes or carpets, ensuring the color and texture of these articles is being maintained. They work in laundry shops and industrial laundry companies and sort the articles received from clients by fabric type. They also determine the cleaning technique to be applied.
Braiding machine operator: Braiding machine operators supervise the braiding process of a group of machines, monitoring fabric quality and braiding conditions. They inspect braiding machines after set up, start up, and during production to ensure the product being braided is meeting specs and quality standards.
Wearing apparel patternmaker: Wearing apparel patternmakers interpret design sketches and cut patterns for all kinds of wearing apparel using various handtools or industrial machines complying customer requirements. They make sampling and prototypes in order to produce series of patterns of wearing apparel in different sizes.
Knitting textile technician: Knitting textile technicians perform operations related to setting up knitting processes. They may work in weft or warp knitting factories, using digital information technology (CAD) for patterning. They work in cooperation with the physical laboratory technicians in order to ensure error free knitted fabrics. They are responsible for highest productivity rates.
Digital prototyper: Digital prototyper transform paper pattern into digital form using special computer software. They operate and monitor machines which make different products related to clothing.
Braiding textile technician: Braiding textile technicians perform operations related to setting up the braiding process.
Clothing technologist: Clothing technologists work on the design, development and production of textile and apparel products. They carry out a range of technical, investigative and quality control work to ensure the end product (from clothing to household up to industrial textiles). They perform to specifications, improve production efficiency and quality while liaising with those involved in the production process. They liaise with designers, adapt designs to suit production methods, make and size pre-production garments, source fabrics and accessories, undertake quality evaluations of materials and check the quality of the final product, and consider ecological aspects.
Tufting operator: Tufting operators supervise the tufting process of a group of machines, monitoring fabric quality and tufting conditions. They inspect tufting machines after set up, start up, and during production to ensure the product being tufted meets specs and quality standards.
Man-made fiber spinner: Man-made fiber spinners perform fibre or filament processing operations.
Clothing quality inspector: Clothing quality inspectors inspect manufactured components, ready-made garments in order to ensure compliance with quality standards and to identify defects or deviations from specifications and in order to classify them according to their quality. They inspect, test products, parts and materials for conformity with specifications and standards. They ensure all work produced meets or exceeds the department’s quality standards.
Laundry ironer: Laundry ironers re-shape clothing items and linen and remove creases from them by using irons, presses and steamers. They clean and maintain the ironing and drying area and organise the items accordingly.
Canvas goods assembler: Canvas goods assemblers construct products made from a closely woven fabrics and leather such as tents, bags or wallets. Artists also use it as painting surface.
Knitting machine operator: Knitting machine operators set up, operate and monitor knitting machines. They work with specialised machinery, techniques and materials to process threads of yarn into knitted products such as clothing, carpets or rope. They maintain and repair knitting machinery and ensure operations run without problems.
Nonwoven staple machine operator: Nonwoven staple machine operators perform physical nonwoven processing operations.
Clothing CAD patternmaker: Clothing CAD patternmakers design, adjust and modify patterns for all kinds of wearing apparel using CAD systems. They check laying variants using nesting modules of the CAD system and material consumption. Once the sample model has been approved for production, these professionals make series of patterns (grading) to produce a range of the same wearing apparel models in different sizes.
Clothing CAD technician: Clothing CAD technicians use software to create design plans for clothing products. They work in 2D design which is known as surface modelling, or 3D design which is called solid modelling. They use surface modelling to draw a flat representation of the clothing product. In solid modelling, they create a 3D display of a structure or component in order to take a virtual look of the clothing product.
Textile quality inspector: Textile quality inspectors ensure that the manufactured of textile products is compliant with predetermined specifications.
Textile dyer: Textile dyers tend dye machines making sure that the setting of machines are in place. They prepare chemicals, dyes, dye baths and solutions according to formulas. They make samples by dyeing textiles and calculating the necessary formulas and dyes all kind of yarn or and textiles.
Clothing cutter: Clothing cutters mark, cut, shape, and trim textile or related materials according to blueprint or specification in the manufacture of wearing apparel.
Weaving machine operator: Weaving machine operators set up, operate and monitor weaving machines .They work with specialised machinery, techniques and materials to process threads of yarn into weaved products such as clothing, home-tex or technical end products. They maintain and repair weaving machinery and ensure operations run without problems.
Brush maker: Brush makers insert different types of material such as horsehair, vegetable fiber, nylon, and hog bristle into metal tubes called ferrules. They insert a wooden or aluminium plug into the bristles to form the brush head and attach the handle to the other side of the ferrule. They immerse the brush head in a protective substance to maintain their shape, finish and inspect the final product.
Knitting machine supervisor: Knitter supervisors supervise the knitting process of a group of machines, monitoring fabric quality and knitting conditions. They inspect knitting machines after set up, start up and during production to ensure that the product being knit meets specifications and quality standards.
Clothing sample machinist: Clothing sample machinist create the first made-up sample of a garment design. They resolve regarding the makeup of garments taking into consideration bulk production to ensure sealing samples are ready on time.
They press finished garments and make quality control checks. 
Drapery and carpet cleaner: Drapery and carpet cleaners clean draperies and carpets for their clients by removing stains, dust or odors. They do this by applying chemical and repellent solutions and with the use of brushes or mechanical equipment.

 


 

References

  1. Properties of fabrics – ESCO

 

Last updated on September 20, 2022

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