The emergency treatment given to a sick or injured person in the case of circulatory and/or respiratory failure, unconsciousness, wounds, bleeding, shock or poisoning.
first aid techniques
first aid treatment
Skill reusability level
Relationships with occupations
First aid is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:
Physiotherapist: Physiotherapists are autonomous health professionals who are responsible for developing, maintaining or restoring motor function and movement throughout the lifespan using evidence-based practice. They relieve pain and treat or prevent physical conditions associated with injury, disease or other impairments. Physiotherapists empower patients and their carers to manage the condition outside clinical settings. They work within their scope of practice and their professional Code of Conduct.
Legal guardian: Legal guardians legally assist and support minor children, mentally disabled persons or incapacitated older adults in their personal life. They can manage their property, help with daily financial administration and assist with the ward’s medical or social needs.
Paramedic in emergency responses: Paramedics in emergency responses provide emergency care to sick, injured, and vulnerable persons in emergency medical situations, before and during transport to a medical facility. They implement and oversee the transfer of the patient in connection with transport. They provide assistance in acute situations, implement life-saving emergency measures, and monitor the performance of the transportation process. As allowed by national law they may also provide oxygen, certain drugs, the puncture of peripheral veins and infusion of crystalloid solutions and perform endotracheal intubation if needed for the immediate prevention of threats for the life or health of an emergency patient.
Anaesthetic technician: Anaesthetic technicians assist specialised doctors in anaesthetics. They prepare operating theatres and other specialised clinics for anaesthetic procedures, prepare the equipment needed for anaesthesia, and assist with inducing and maintaining adequate anaesthesia and post-anaesthesia procedures. They do so under supervision, following the orders of the doctor of medicine.
Fire service vehicle operator: Fire service vehicle operators drive and operate emergency fire service vehicles such as firetrucks. They specialise in emergency driving and assist firefighting operations. They ensure that all material is well stored on the vehicle, transported and ready for usage.
Nursing lecturer: Nursing lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers, and often doctors who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, nursing, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams, for leading laboratory practices, and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of nursing, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Industrial firefighter: Industrial firefighters are responsible for emergency response in case of a fire outbreak or other hazardous situations in industrial areas or facilities. They actively respond to contain fires and the outbreak of other hazardous substances to protect the industrial crews and premises. They ensure the industrial facility complies with health and safety regulations. They also regulate the clean-up of the scene and assess the damage.
Life guard: Life guards monitor and ensure safety in the aquatic facility by preventing and responding to any emergencies. They identify potential risks, advise individuals on proper behaviour and dangerous zones, conduct life-saving techniques such as first aid and supervise activities of the general public.
Chiropractor: Chiropractors are responsible for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders related to the neuromusculoskeletal system and the effects of these disorders on general health. They are independent primary health care professionals.
Lifeguard instructor: Lifeguard instructors teach future (professional) lifeguards the necessary programmes and methods needed to become a licensed lifeguard. They provide training on safety supervision of all swimmers, assessment of potentially hazardous situations, rescue-specific swimming and diving techniques, first aid treatment for swimming-related injuries, and they inform students on preventative lifeguard responsibilities. They ensure students are aware of the importance of checking safe water quality, heeding risk management and being aware of the necessary protocols and regulations regarding lifeguarding and rescuing. They monitor the students’ progress, evaluate them through theoretical and practical tests and award the lifeguard licenses when obtained.
Nuclear medicine radiographer: Nuclear Medicine Radiographers plan, prepare and perform nuclear medicine examinations, post-processing and treatment with a wide range of equipment and techniques using X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and radiopharmaceuticals.
Emergency ambulance driver: Emergency ambulance drivers use emergency vehicles to respond to medical emergencies and support the work of paramedics, move patients safely, take note of changes in the patient’s vital signs and report to the paramedics in charge, ensuring the medical equipment is well stored, transported and functional, under supervision and on order of a doctor of medicine.
Radiographer: Radiographers use a range of technologies to examine, treat and care for patients. They work in the fields of Medical Imaging, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine and apply ionising radiation, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and radioactive sources.
Orthoptist: Orthoptists diagnose and treat anomalies of binocular vision. They examine, assess and treat vision impairments, squint, amblyopia and eye motility disorders. Orthoptists apply these methods in particular in the fields of paediatrics, neurology, neuro-ophthalmology, ophthalmology, orthoptics, optometry, pleoptics and strabology assessing functional diseases of the eye for improving functional disorders of the visual system. They also provide counselling, preventive measures and training activities and may refract and prescribe glasses, such as prism corrective glasses.
Pump operator: Pump operators assist firefighting operations by controlling the pumps which supply water and other substances for extinguishing fires. They ensure the substance is delivered in the right amount and under the correct pressure through the firehose.
Diagnostic radiographer: Diagnostic radiographers plan, prepare and perform diagnostic imaging examinations and post processing, with a wide range of equipment and techniques using X-rays, strong magnetic fields or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and high frequency sound (Ultrasound).
Speech and language therapist: Speech and language therapists focus on the aetiology, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in people of all ages in order to help them maintain, promote, improve, initiate, or recover the ability to communicate both verbally and nonverbally. They address the development of language, speech, vocal and hearing functions, and disorders and disabilities in the cranial, facial, and oral area.
Nurse assistant: Nurse assistants provide basic patient care under direction of nursing staff. They perform duties such as feed, bathe, dress, groom, move patients or change linens and may transfer or transport patients.
Firefighter: Firefighters are responsible for emergency response in case of a fire outbreak or other hazardous situations. They oversee the evacuation of the endangered premises and ensure victims are rescued and taken care of by the appropriate professionals. Once the premises are clear of victims, they ensure the fire is extinguished, compliant with health and safety regulations. They also regulate the clean-up of the scene and assess the damage.
Nurse responsible for general care: Nurses responsible for general care are in charge of promoting and restoring patients` health by providing physical and psychological support to patients, friends, and families. They also supervise assigned team members.
Health psychologist: Health psychologists deal with the various aspects of health related behaviour of individuals and groups, by helping individuals or groups prevent illness and promote healthy behaviours by also providing counseling services. They perform tasks for the development of health promotion activities and projects on the basis of psychological science, research findings, theories, methods and techniques. They also engage in research about health related issues to influence public policy on health care issues.
Marine firefighter: Marine firefighters are responsible for emergency response in case of a fire outbreak or other hazardous situations in marine environments. They actively respond to contain fires and the outbreak of other hazardous on vessels, docks and other marine facilities. They ensure the marine installation complies with health and safety regulations. They also regulate the clean-up of the scene and assess the damage.
Hospital porter: Hospital porters are professional healthcare assistants who transport people on stretchers around the hospital site, as well as and items.
Therapeutic radiographer: Therapeutic radiographers prepare and perform safe and accurate high-energy radiation treatments to patients, using a wide range of sophisticated equipment and techniques, to target the area to be treated, and computer planning to produce a plan of the dose distribution across the area to be treated.
First aid instructor: First aid instructors teach students immediate lifesaving emergency measures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the recovery position, and injury care. They provided practice materials such as a specialised manikin.
Rescue diver: Rescue divers are divers that manage underwater emergencies. They prevent and manage problems underwater, handle dive emergencies and operate rescue equipment. Rescue divers manage diving operations in seas or waterways. They work under demanding physical conditions to rescue and retrieve people or objects.
Specialist chiropractor: Specialist chiropractors have an advanced knowledge and understanding in a specific chiropractic area, acquiring complex decision making skills and clinical competency within the scope of the chiropractic profession. Specialist chiropractors may have undertaken an advanced course of studies to acquire the necessary skills and competency and qualification. Specialist chiropractors may be found in different specific fields such as education, functional neurology, orthopaedics, paediatrics, research, radiology, sport.
Clinical psychologist: Clinical psychologists diagnose, rehabilitate, and support individuals affected by mental, emotional, and behavioural disorders and problems as well as mental changes and pathogenic conditions through use of cognitive tools and appropriate intervention. They use clinical psychological resources on the basis of psychological science, its findings, theories, methods, and techniques for the investigation, interpretation, and prediction of human experience and behaviour.
Emergency response worker: Emergency response workers work in missions to aid in emergency and disaster situations, such as natural disasters or oil spills. They clean up the debris or waste caused by the event, ensure the people involved are brought to safety, prevent further damage, and transport goods such as food and medical supplies.
First aid is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.
Primary school teaching assistant: Primary school teaching assistants provide instructional and practical support to primary school teachers. They reinforce instruction with students in need of extra attention and prepare the materials the teacher needs in class. They also perform clerical work, monitor the students’ learning progress and behaviour and supervise the students with and without the head teacher present.
Table saw operator: Table saw operators work with industrial saws that cut with a rotating circular blade. The saw is built into a table. The operator sets the height of the saw to control the depth of the cut. Particular attention is paid to safety, as factors such as natural stresses within the wood may produce unpredictable forces.
Teacher of talented and gifted students: Talented and gifted students co-ordinators ensure suitable education is provided to talented and gifted students, commonly children and young adults, on various levels. They oversee the implementation of the school’s gifted policy, monitor the studentsâ progress, and suggest extra activities to stretch and stimulate.
Biomedical scientist: Biomedical scientists perform all laboratory methods required as part of medical examination, treatment and research activities, particularly clinical-chemical, haematological, immuno-haematological, histological, cytological, microbiological, parasitological, mycological, serological and radiological tests. They perform analytical sample testing and report the results to the medical staff for further diagnosis. Biomedical Scientists may apply these methods in particular in the infection, blood or cellular sciences.
Occupational therapist: Occupational therapists assist individuals or groups who have occupational limitations due to diseases, physical disorders, and temporary or permanent mental disabilities, in regaining their ability to perform daily activities. They provide treatment and rehabilitation to enable them to actively participate in society, to live their lives according to their wishes and to perform those activities that are meaningful to them.
Anatomical pathology technician: Anatomical pathology technicians assist specialised doctors in pathology in conducting post-mortem examinations, keeping records of the samples, specimens, organs and the respective findings and taking care of their appropriate disposal under supervision, following the orders of the doctor of medicine.
Early years teaching assistant: Early years teaching assistants support the early years teacher in an early years or nursery school. They assist in class instruction, in classroom supervision in absence of the head teacher, and in organising, developing and putting into practice of the daily schedule. Early years teaching assistants monitor and help students in group as well as individually, and tend to focus on the students in need of extra care and attention the early years teacher cannot provide.
Child care coordinator: Child care coordinators organise child care services, activities and events after the school hours and during school hoildays. They assist in the development of children by implementing care programmes. Child care coordinators also entertain children and maintain a safe environment for the children.
Psychologist: Psychologists study the behaviour and mental processes in humans. They provide services to clients who deal with mental health issues and life issues such as bereavement, relationship difficulties, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. They also provide counselling for mental health issues such as eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and psychosis in order to help the clients rehabilitate and reach a healthy behaviour.
Early years teacher: Early years teachers instruct students, primarily young children, in basic subjects and creative play with the aim of developing their social and intellectual skills in an informal way in preparation for future formal learning. They create lesson plans, possibly in accordance with a fixed curriculum, for an entire class or smaller groups and test the students on the content. These lesson plans, based on basic subjects, can include the instruction of number, letter, and colour recognition, days of the week, categorisation of animals and transport vehicles etc. Early years teachers also supervise students outside the classroom on school grounds and enforce rules of behaviour there as well.
Clinical perfusion scientist: Clinical perfusion scientists operate heart-lung equipment during surgical operations to ensure breathing and blood circulation. They work as part of the surgical team, connect patients to the heart-lung machines in preparation for surgery, monitor their condition during surgery, report to the team on the patients’ status and determine the necessary techniques according to their needs.
Montessori school teacher: Montessori school teachers educate students using approaches that reflect the Montessori philosophy and principles. They focus on constructivist and “learning through discovery” teaching models, through which they encourage students to learn from first-hand experience rather than through direct instruction and thus provide the students with a relatively high level of freedom. They adhere to a specific curriculum that respects the students’ natural, physical, social and psychological development. Montessori school teachers also teach classes with students differing up to three years in age in rather large groups, manage, and evaluate all the students separately according to the Montessori school philosophy.
Secondary school teaching assistant: Secondary school teaching assistants provide various support services to secondary school teachers such as instructional and practical support. They help with the preparation of lesson materials needed in class and reinforce instructions with students in need of extra attention. They also perform basic clerical duties, monitor the students’ learning progress and behaviour and supervise the students with and without the teacher present.
Respiratory therapy technician: Respiratory therapy technicians assist doctors and surgeons to treat respiratory problems. They work in hospitals and medical facilities where they operate medical equipment to test patients’ respiratory conditions and aid in their treatment. Respiratory therapy technicians also tend to breathing equipment and machines during surgery.
Metal production supervisor: Metal production supervisors oversee the day-to-day working process and activities of the labourers in a metal fabrication factory. They supervise staff, create work schedules, maintain a safe work environment and serve as the first, most accessible management representative for the workers to contact when there is need.
Door supervisor: Door supervisors ensure that the people entering public places such as bars, restaurants and concert venues are suitable and that they do not represent potential problems. They enforce legal regulations by checking individuals’ legal age to enter a bar, manage crowds and emergencies, monitor dress codes and handle aggressive and abusive behaviours.
Occupational therapy assistant: Occupational therapy assistants support occupational therapists by working with people and communities to enhance their ability to engage in the occupations they want to, need to, or are expected to do, or by modifying the occupation or the environment to better support their occupational engagement. They work under the supervision of an occupational therapist.
Sawmill operator: Sawmill operators work with automated lumber mill equipment which saws timber into rough lumber. They also handle various sawing machines which further process the lumber in various shapes and sizes. These processes are nowadays often computer controlled.
Dietitian: Dietitians assess specific nutritional requirements of populations or individuals throughout their lives and translate this into advice which will maintain, reduce risk to, or restore people’s health. Using evidence-based approaches, dietitians work to empower individuals, families and groups to provide or select food which is nutritionally adequate, safe, tasty and sustainable. Beyond healthcare, dietitians improve the nutritional environment for all through governments, industry, academia and research.
Freinet school teacher: Freinet school teachers educate students using approaches that reflect the Freinet philosophy and principles. They focus on enquiry-based, democracy-implementing and cooperative learning methods. They adhere to a specific curriculum that incorporates these learning methods through which students use trial and error practices in order to develop their own interests in a democratic, self-government context. Freinet school teachers also encourage students to practically create products and provide services in and outside of class, usually handcrafted or personally initiated, implementing the ‘pedagogy of work’ theory. They manage and evaluate all the students separately according to the Freinet school philosophy.
Prosthetist-orthotist: Prosthetist-orthotists design and custom fit prostheses and orthoses for individuals who are missing a limb from accident, disease or congenital conditions or for individuals who have impairments, deficiences or weaknesses due to injury, pathology or congenital malformation. They mix patient care with the design and fabrication of these devices to address their patients’ needs.
Patient transport services driver: Patient transport services drivers transfer disabled, vulnerable and elderly patients to and from health care facilities such as hospitals or social care settings. They drive the ambulance and maintain all the related equipment but under non-emergency circumstances.
Osteopath: Osteopaths provide therapeutic treatment of disorders in the musculoskeletal system to patients with physical issues such as back pain, joint pain and digestive disorders. They mainly use manipulation of the body tissues, touch, stretching and massage techniques to relieve the patients` pain and promote a healthy lifestyle.
Band saw operator: Band saw operators work with industrial saws that feature a continuous flexible blade revolving around two or more wheels. Band saws are most effective at producing irregular shapes.
Early years special educational needs teacher: Early years special educational needs teachers provide specially-designed instruction to students with a variety of disabilities on a kindergarten level and ensure they reach their learning potential. Some early years special educational needs teachers work with children who have mild to moderate disabilities, implementing a modified curriculum to fit each student’s specific needs. Other early years special educational needs teachers assist and instruct students with intellectual disabilities and autism, focusing on teaching them basic literacy and life skills. All teachers assess the students’ progress, taking into account their strengths and weaknesses, and communicate their findings to parents, counselors, administrators and other parties involved.
Crosscut saw operator: Crosscut saw operators use a manual crosscut saw. Crosscut sawing is used for ‘felling’ and ‘bucking’ trees, or taking off the limbs to obtain logs. Crosscut sawyers may also work with smaller crosscut saws in a workshop to make manual cuts.
Infantry soldier: Infantry soldiers fight in combat missions or provide aid in peacekeeping missions and other humanitarian services. They handle weapons and provide defence services where they are required, and attempt to complete missions while causing minimal harm.
Wood production supervisor: Wood production supervisors monitor processes involved in the conversion of felled trees into usable lumber. They follow the production process and make quick decisions to resolve problems. They ensure that production targets, such as quantity and quality of products, timeliness and cost-effectiveness, can be achieved.
Complementary therapist: Complementary therapists use a range of complementary and alternative therapies to work simultaneously with the clients` body, mind, and spirit in a holistic approach. They offer practices and services for holistic wellbeing, health maintenance, health education, health promotion and prevention of illness, along with the sustainable treatment of certain illnesses, especially chronic illnesses. Their practices include but are not limited to acupuncture, aromatherapy, banotherapy, homeopathy, and herbal medicine.
Welding coordinator: Welding coordinators supervise the workflow of welding applications. They monitor welding processes performed by other welders, supervise the staff, being sometimes responsible for vocational training. They also weld particularly demanding parts. Welding coordinators ensure that the necessary welding equipment is ready for usage. They mostly coordinate welding applications and related professional activities.
Sophrologist: Sophrologists aim to reduce their clients` stress and produce optimal health and well-being by applying a dynamic relaxation method which consists of a specific set of physical and mental exercises on a doctor’s order.
Assistant clinical psychologist: Assistant clinical psychologists aid psychologists in their work. They work in healthcare facilities or private practices where they assist psychologists with their treatment of patients. Assistant clinical psychologists are healthcare professionals that can assess patients with psychological tests and aid with therapy, as well as performing administrative functions.
Wood router operator: Wood router operators work with industrial routers to cut wood into the desired shape. Routers have a routing head that moves over the wood, going up and down to regulate the depth of the incision. Contemporary industrial wood routers usually are computer controlled for extremely fine and consistent results.
Wood assembly supervisor: Wood assembly supervisors monitor the various processes in the assembly of wood products. They have a thorough understanding of the production processes under their supervision and take quick decisions when required.
- First aid – ESCO