Financial statements

Description

The set of financial records disclosing the financial position of a company at the end of a set period or of the accounting year. The financial statements consisting of five parts which are the statement of financial position, the statement of comprehensive income, the statement of changes in equity (SOCE), the statement of cash flows and notes.

Alternative labels

statements on finances
financial statement
records of financial activities

Skill type

knowledge

Skill reusability level

cross-sector

Relationships with occupations

Essential knowledge

Financial statements is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:

Accounting manager: Accounting managers assume responsibility for all accounting activities relating to financial reporting. They develop and maintain accounting principles and procedures to ensure timely and accurate financial statements issued, supervise accounting staff and manage the accounting activities within the appropriate time frame and budget.
Credit analyst: Credit analysts investigate credit applications from customers and evaluate if the applications comply with regulations and guidelines of the financial loan-granting institution. On the basis of credit analyses they advise financial institutions whether customers are loan worthy. They perform tasks such as collecting data on the loan applicant, aquire additional information from other departments or institutions and indicating what sort of agreements the financial institution should reach with the credit applicant. Credit analysts also follow up on the development of the credit portfolio of clients.
Branch manager: Branch managers are responsible for the management of all the affairs related with a company in a specific geographic region or business branch. They receive indications from the headquarters, and depending on the structure of the company, they aim to implement the strategy of the company while adapting it to the market where the branch operates. They envision management of employees, communications, marketing efforts, and follow up to results and objectives.
Investment manager: Investment managers administer the portfolio of investments that a company has. They perform close follow up of the investments looking for the most profitable solutions represented in financial products or securities. They analyse behaviour in financial markets, interests rates, and the companies’ position in order to advise on risks and profitability for the client.
Real estate manager: Real estate managers handle and oversee the operational aspects of commercial or residential properties such as private apartments, office buildings and retail stores. They negotiate contracts for lease, identify and plan new real estate projects and construction of new buildings by partnering with a developer to identify the appropriate site for new buildings, coordinate the feasibility study for new constructions and supervise all the administrative and technical aspects involved in expanding the business. They maintain the premises and aim to increase its value. They hire, train and supervise personnel.
Financial manager: Financial managers handle all the matters in reference to the finance and investments of a company. They manage financial operations of companies such as the assets, liabilities, equity and cash flow aiming to maintain the financial health of the company and operative viability. Financial managers evaluate the strategic plans of the company in financial terms, maintain transparent financial operations for taxation and auditing bodies, and create the financial statements of the company at the end of the fiscal year.
Credit manager: Credit managers oversee the application of credit policy in the bank. They decide the credit limits to be imposed, the reasonable levels of risk accepted and the conditions and terms of payment made to the customers. They control the collection of payments from their customers and manage the credit department of a bank.
Corporate treasurer: Corporate treasurers determine and oversee the financial strategic policies of a company or organisation. They use cash management techniques like account organisation, cash flow monitoring, liquidity planning and control, risk management including currency and commodity risks and maintain close connection with banks and rating agencies.
Budget manager: Budget managers assess financial proposals of different departments before granting financial resources to projects. They monitor the implementation of budget policies and procedures. They work closely with other departments in the evaluation of programs, their impact in the organisation, the revenue that they can yield, and the financial efforts required.
Credit union manager: Credit union managers oversee and manage member services, supervise staff and operations of credit unions. They inform staff about the latest credit union procedures and policies and prepare financial reports.
Investor relations manager: Investor relations managers disseminate the investment strategy of the company and monitor the reactions of the investment community towards it. They use marketing, financial, communications, and security law expertise to ensure transparent communication to the larger community. They respond to inquiries from shareholders and investors in relation to the company’s financial stability, stocks, or corporate policies.
Business valuer: Business valuers provide valuation assessements of business entities, stock and other securities and intangible assets, in order to assist their clients in strategic decision-making procedures such as mergers and acquisitions, litigation cases, bankruptcy, taxation compliance and general restructuring of the companies.
Insurance agency manager: Insurance agency managers coordinate and oversee the operations of an institution or a branch of an institution that offers insurance services. They provide clients with advice on insurance products.
Bank account manager: Bank account managers advise prospective clients on the type of banking accounts suitable for their needs. They work with clients to set up the bank account and remain their primary point of contact in the bank, assisting with all necessary documentation. Bank account managers may recommend their clients to contact other departments in the bank for other specific needs.
Financial controller: Financial controllers handle all tasks related to the budgeting and accounting aspects of a company or organisation. They implement and ensure compliance with internal financial and accounting procedures, and prepare documentation for external audits. They collect information related to financial statements such as assets, liabilities, equity, and cash flow in order to assess the company’s financial position to prepare annual budgets and forecasts.
Chief executive officer: Chief executive officers hold the highest ranking in a pyramidal corporate structure. They are able to hold a complete idea of the functioning of the business, its departments, risks, and stakeholders. They analyse different kinds of information and create links among them for decision-making purposes. They serve as a  communication link with the board of directors for reporting and implementation of the overall strategy.
Insurance product manager: Insurance product managers set and direct the development of new insurance products, following the product lifecycle policy and the general insurance strategy. They also coordinate the marketing and sales activities related to the specific insurance products of the company. Insurance product managers inform their sales managers (or the sales department) about their newly developed insurance products.
Bank manager: Bank managers oversee the management of one or several bank activities. They set policies which promote safe banking operations, ensure the economic, social and commercial targets are met and that all the bank departments, activities and commercial policies are in compliance with legal requirements. They also manage employees and maintain an effective working relationship among the staff.
Insurance claims manager: Insurance claims managers lead the team of insurance claims officers to ensure they handle insurance claims properly and efficiently. They deal with more complex customer complains and assist with fraudulent cases. Insurance claims managers work with insurance brokers, agents, loss adjusters and customers.
Financial fraud examiner: Financial fraud examiners undertake anti-fraud investigations including financial statement irregularities, securities fraud and market abuse detection. They manage fraud risk assessments and prepare forensic reports including the analysis and verification of evidence. Financial fraud examiners liaise with regulatory bodies.
Risk manager: Risk managers identify and assess potential threats and risks to a company, and give advice on how to deal with them. They create preventive plans to avoid and reduce risks, and put plans in place for when the company is threatened.
Bank treasurer: Bank treasurers oversee all aspects of the financial management of a bank. They manage the liquidity and solvency of the bank. They manage and present current budgets, revise financial forecasts, prepare accounts for audit, manage the bank’s accounts and maintain accurate record-keeping of financial documentation.
Investment fund manager: Investment fund managers implement and monitor the investment strategy of a fund. They manage the fund’s portfolio trading activities and supervise the financial, securities, and investment analysts in charge to perform research on the investments and then make buying and selling recommendations. They make decisions on when to buy or sell the assets included in a portfolio. This manager works in a variety of settings such as banks, companies and stockbroking companies; working closely with the investment analyst. This occupation manages strategy and does not always work with relations between shareholders or investors.
Fundraising manager:
Fundraising managers are responsible for raising money on behalf of organisations, often non-profit such as charities. Moreover, they manage the fundraised resources developing programs for its use. They perform a variety of tasks to raise money such as developing corporate partnerships, coordinating direct mail campaigns, organizing fundraisers, contacting donators or sponsors, and sourcing grant income from trusts, foundations and other statutory bodies.
Bookkeeper: Bookkeepers record and assemble the day-to-day financial transactions of an organisation or company, consisting usually of sales, purchases, payments and receipts. They ensure all financial transactions are documented in the appropriate (day) book and general ledger, and that they are balanced out. Bookkeepers prepare the recorded books and ledgers with financial transactions for an accountant to then analyse balance sheets and income statements.
Banking products manager: Banking products managers study the market of banking products and adapt the existing ones to the characteristics of this evolution or create new products to suit clients needs. They monitor and evaluate the performance indicators of these products and suggest improvements. Banking products managers assist with the sales and marketing strategy of the bank.
Chief operating officer: Chief operating officers are the right hand and second in command of a company’s chief executive officer. They ensure that the daily operations of the company run smoothly. Chief operating officers also develop company policies, rules and goals.
Accounting analyst: Accounting analysts evaluate the financial statements of clients, usually companies, which include the income sheet, the balance sheet, the statement of cash flows and additional notes to other financial statements. They interpret and implement new accounting systems and accounting procedures and will analyse and determine if the proposed systems conform to accounting regulations and meet user information requirements.
Audit supervisor: Audit supervisors oversee audit staff, planning and reporting, and review the audit staff’s automated audit work papers to ensure compliance with the company’s methodology. They prepare reports, evaluate general auditing and operating practices, and communicate findings to the superior management.
Real estate leasing manager: Real estate leasing managers set up the lease or rental efforts of an apartment community and properties not in co-ownership and also manage the leasing staff. They produce, track and manage file leasing deposits and documents. They also oversee the lease administration and prepare tenancy budgets on an annual and monthly basis. They also actively promote the vacancies available in order to get new residents, show properties to potential tenants and are present to conclude contracts between landlords and tenants when dealing with private property.
Relationship banking manager: Relationship banking managers retain and expand existing and prospective customer relationships. They use cross-selling techniques to advise and sell various banking and financial products and services to customers. They also manage the total relationship with customers and are responsible for optimising business results and customer satisfaction.
Housing manager: Housing managers oversee housing services for tenants or residents. They work for housing associations or private organisations for which they collect rental fees, inspect properties, suggest and implement improvements concerning repairs or neighbour nuissance issues, maintain communication with tenants, handle housing applications and liaise with local authorities and property managers. They hire, train and supervise personnel.
Asset manager: Asset managers invest the money of a client into financial assets, through vehicles such as investment funds or management of individual clients’ portfolios. This includes the management of the financial assets, within a given investment policy and risk framework, the provision of information, the assessment and monitoring of risks.
Accountant:
Accountants review and analyse financial statements, budgets, financial reports, and business plans in order to check for irregularities resulting from error or fraud, and provide their clients with financial advice in matters such as financial forecasting and risk analysis. They may audit financial data, resolve insolvency cases, prepare tax returns and provide other tax-related advice in reference to current legislation.

Optional knowledge

Financial statements is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.

Securities analyst: Securities analysts perform research activities to gather and analyse financial, legal and economic information. They interpret data on the price, stability and future investment trends in a certain economic area and make recommendations and forecasts to business clients.
Mergers and acquisitions analyst: Mergers and acquisitions analysts oversee the execution of transactions for the purchase, sale, merger or takeover of companies. They negotiate and complete the deal on the client’s behalf, by working closely with lawyers and accountants. Mergers and acquisitions analysts conduct operational and legal risk assessments of a company, assess comparable companies in the market and help with the post-merger integration.
Financial auditor: Financial auditors collect and examine financial data for clients, organisations and companies. They ensure the financial data is properly maintained and free of material misstatements due to error or fraud, that it adds up, and functions legally and effectively. They review lending and credit policies or numbers in databases and documents, evaluate, consult and assist the source of the transaction if necessary. They use their review of the client’s financial governance as assurance to give testimony to the shareholders, stakeholders and board of directors of the organisation or company that all is up to par.
Auditing clerk: Auditing clerks collect and examine financial data, such as inventory transactions, for organisations and companies and ensure they are accurate, properly maintained, and that they add up. They review the numbers in databases and documents, evaluate, and consult and assist the source of the transaction if necessary, which includes accountants, managers or other clerks.
Corporate investment banker: Corporate investment bankers offer strategic advice on financial services to companies and other institutions. They ensure that legal regulations are being followed by their clients in their efforts of raising any capital. They provide technical expertise and information on mergers and acquisitions, bonds and shares, privatisations and reorganisation, raising capital and security underwriting, including equity and debt markets.
Business manager: Business managers are responsible for setting the objectives of the business unit of a company, creating a plan for the operations, and facilitating the achievement of the objectives and implementation of the plan together with employees of the segment and stakeholders. They keep an overview of the business, understand detailed information of the business unit and support the department, and make decisions based on the information at hand.
Business analyst:
Business analysts research and understand the strategic position of businesses and companies in relation to their markets and their stakeholders. They analyse and present their views on how the company, from many perspectives, can improve its strategic position and internal corporate structure. They assess needs for change, communication methods, technology, IT tools, new standards and certifications.
Business consultant: Business consultants analyse the position, structure and processes of businesses and companies and offer services or advice to improve them. They research and identify business processes such as financial inefficiencies or employee management and devise strategical plans to overcome these difficulties. They work in external consulting firms where they provide an objective view on a business and or company’s structure and methodological processes.
Investment fund management assistant: Investment fund management assistants provide clients with financial planning advice on financial products and serve as the main contact point for new and old clients. They assist and perform preparatory work in the creation and administration of funds and help with the implementation of fund management decisions made by the portfolio or fund manager.
Department manager: Department managers are responsible for the operations of a certain division or department of a company. They ensure objectives and goals are reached and manage employees.
Lawyer: Lawyers provide legal advice to clients and act on their behalf in legal proceedings and in compliance with the law. They research for, interpret and study cases to represent their clients in a variety of settings such as courts and administrative boards. They create arguments on behalf of their clients for lawsuits in different contexts with the aim of finding a legal remedy.
Investment analyst: Investment analysts undertake research to make informed recommendations to fund managers. They research investments globally but depending on the nature and field of their employer they can specialise in fields like retail, infrastructure, energy, banking and financial services. They focus on financial and economical information such as the political and economic developments that can impact financial markets, the financial performance of the target companies and use the interpretation of data from different sources to understand how it affects investment decision making.
Property acquisitions manager: Property acquisitions managers ensure land or property acquisitions transactions. They liaise with relevant stakeholders concerning financial aspects and risks arising from the acquisition of property. Property acquisitions managers ensure compliance with legal requirements for purchasing property and take care of all documentation and closure techniques needed.

Accounting assistant: Accounting assistants record and report ticketing accounting situations to the accountant they work with, verify deposits and prepare daily reports and income. They arrange authorised refund vouchers, maintain the returned check accounts and communicate with ticketing managers concerning any ticketing systems issues.
Bankruptcy trustee: Bankruptcy trustees administer a client’s bankruptcy case, investigate legal documentation for fraud possibilities and manage the money received from the sale of non-exempt property so as to distribute it to the owed creditors.
Dividend analyst: Dividend analysts calculate and allocate dividends and interest incomes of a company’s earnings to a category of its shareholders. They assess business systems and processes in order to identify user needs and to deliver appropriate solutions. They also undertake dividend forecasts on amounts and payment schedules and identify potential risks, based on their financial and market price expertise.
Insurance underwriter: Insurance underwriters assess business risks and liability policies and make decisions about commercial property. They inspect the conditions of businesses’ properties, analyse inspection policies, assist with real estate and rent issues, prepare loan contracts and handle commercial risks in order to align them with business practices. Insurance underwriters analyse various information from prospective customers in order to assess the likelihood that they will report a claim. They work to minimise risk for the insurance company and make sure that the insurance premium aligns with the associated risks. They can be specialists in life insurance, health insurance, reinsurance, commercial insurance, mortgage insurance.
Corporate lawyer: Corporate lawyers provide legal consulting services and representation to corporations and organisations. They give advice on matters relating to taxes, legal rights and patents, international trade, trademarks, and legal financial issues arising from operating a business.

 


 

References

  1. Financial statements – ESCO

 

Last updated on September 20, 2022

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