The theory of finance that attempts to either maximise the profit of an investment equivalent to the risk taken or to reduce the risk for the expected profit of an investment by judiciously choosing the right combination of financial products.
Skill reusability level
Relationships with occupations
Modern portfolio theory is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:
Securities analyst: Securities analysts perform research activities to gather and analyse financial, legal and economic information. They interpret data on the price, stability and future investment trends in a certain economic area and make recommendations and forecasts to business clients.
Mergers and acquisitions analyst: Mergers and acquisitions analysts oversee the execution of transactions for the purchase, sale, merger or takeover of companies. They negotiate and complete the deal on the client’s behalf, by working closely with lawyers and accountants. Mergers and acquisitions analysts conduct operational and legal risk assessments of a company, assess comparable companies in the market and help with the post-merger integration.
Financial planner: Financial planners assist people dealing with various personal financial issues. They are specialised in financial planning, such as retirement planning, investment planning, risk management and insurance planning, and tax planning. They advise a strategy tailored to the client’s needs. They ensure the accuracy of bank and other financial records while maintaining a customer-orientated approach and following ethical standards.
Corporate investment banker: Corporate investment bankers offer strategic advice on financial services to companies and other institutions. They ensure that legal regulations are being followed by their clients in their efforts of raising any capital. They provide technical expertise and information on mergers and acquisitions, bonds and shares, privatisations and reorganisation, raising capital and security underwriting, including equity and debt markets.
Investment adviser: Investment advisers are professionals who offer transparent advice by recommending suitable solutions on financial matters to their clients. They advise on investing pension or free funds in securities such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds and exchange-traded funds to customers. Investment advisers serve individuals, households, families and owners of small companies.
Stock trader: Stock traders use their technical expertise of financial markets performance to advise and make recommendations to asset managers or shareholders for a profitable investment strategy, keeping in mind the company’s performance. They use stock market trading operations and deal with a wide array of taxes, commissions and fiscal obligations. Stock traders buy and sell bonds, stocks, futures and shares in hedge funds. They perform detailed micro- and macroeconomic and industry specific technical analysis.
Securities trader: Securities traders purchase and sell securities such as stocks, bonds and shares on their own account or on their employers account based on their expertise in the financial markets. They monitor the performance of the securities traded, assessing their stability or speculative tendancies. Securities brokers calculate the securities price and place orders. They record and file all securities transactions and take care of their financial documents.
Investor relations manager: Investor relations managers disseminate the investment strategy of the company and monitor the reactions of the investment community towards it. They use marketing, financial, communications, and security law expertise to ensure transparent communication to the larger community. They respond to inquiries from shareholders and investors in relation to the company’s financial stability, stocks, or corporate policies.
Real estate investor: Real estate investors buy and sell own real estate such as appartements, dwellings, land and non-residential buildings to make a profit. They might actively invest in these properties to increase its value by repairing, renovating or improving the facilities available. Their other tasks may include researching the real estate market prices and undertaking property research.
Stock broker: Stock brokers act on behalf of their individual or institutional clients in order to buy and sell stocks and other securities. They are in close contact with their clients and ensure that what they buy or sell through the stock exchange market is according to their clients’ wishes. Stock brokers undertake analyst research to make recommendations to their clients and expand their client base through various methods.
Investment analyst: Investment analysts undertake research to make informed recommendations to fund managers. They research investments globally but depending on the nature and field of their employer they can specialise in fields like retail, infrastructure, energy, banking and financial services. They focus on financial and economical information such as the political and economic developments that can impact financial markets, the financial performance of the target companies and use the interpretation of data from different sources to understand how it affects investment decision making.
Investment fund manager: Investment fund managers implement and monitor the investment strategy of a fund. They manage the fund’s portfolio trading activities and supervise the financial, securities, and investment analysts in charge to perform research on the investments and then make buying and selling recommendations. They make decisions on when to buy or sell the assets included in a portfolio. This manager works in a variety of settings such as banks, companies and stockbroking companies; working closely with the investment analyst. This occupation manages strategy and does not always work with relations between shareholders or investors.
Mutual fund broker: Mutual fund brokers handle and raise cash from shareholders in order to invest them in stocks, bonds and money-market securities. They engage with investors by making inquiries about the client’s mutual funds account status and transaction procedures. Mutual fund brokers make use of their expertise in investment theory, market experience, and research to pick the most approapriate investments for their fund portfolio. They ensure that the mutual fund’s operations are in compliance with legal requirements.
Asset manager: Asset managers invest the money of a client into financial assets, through vehicles such as investment funds or management of individual clients’ portfolios. This includes the management of the financial assets, within a given investment policy and risk framework, the provision of information, the assessment and monitoring of risks.
Insurance underwriter: Insurance underwriters assess business risks and liability policies and make decisions about commercial property. They inspect the conditions of businesses’ properties, analyse inspection policies, assist with real estate and rent issues, prepare loan contracts and handle commercial risks in order to align them with business practices. Insurance underwriters analyse various information from prospective customers in order to assess the likelihood that they will report a claim. They work to minimise risk for the insurance company and make sure that the insurance premium aligns with the associated risks. They can be specialists in life insurance, health insurance, reinsurance, commercial insurance, mortgage insurance.
Modern portfolio theory is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.
Actuarial consultant: Actuarial consultants analyse, manage and provide guidance on financial impact of risks. They can work in fields related to insurance, pension, investment, banking, healthcare etc. Actuarial consultants apply technical and statistical models and theories to give strategic, commercial, and financial advice.
Real estate manager: Real estate managers handle and oversee the operational aspects of commercial or residential properties such as private apartments, office buildings and retail stores. They negotiate contracts for lease, identify and plan new real estate projects and construction of new buildings by partnering with a developer to identify the appropriate site for new buildings, coordinate the feasibility study for new constructions and supervise all the administrative and technical aspects involved in expanding the business. They maintain the premises and aim to increase its value. They hire, train and supervise personnel.
Insurance rating analyst: Insurance rating analysts analyse information related to insurance markets and their credit rating, prepare rating reports and invoices, compile financial data and present and explain credit rating opinions to stakeholders, clients and external parties. They work for insurance companies and calculate the insurance premium and rates for the company’s clients using both manual and automated methods.
Energy trader: Energy traders sell or buy shares of energy, sometimes from different sources. They analyse the energy market and investigate trends in prices to decide when to buy or sell shares and ensure the most profit. They make calculations, and write reports on energy trades procedures, and make predictions on the development of the market.
Commodity brokers act as intermediary between buyers and sellers of movable and immovable property such as raw materials, livestock or real estate. They negotiate prices and receive a commission from the transactions. They research market conditions for specific commodities in order to inform their clients. They make bid offers and calculate the cost of transactions.
Financial manager: Financial managers handle all the matters in reference to the finance and investments of a company. They manage financial operations of companies such as the assets, liabilities, equity and cash flow aiming to maintain the financial health of the company and operative viability. Financial managers evaluate the strategic plans of the company in financial terms, maintain transparent financial operations for taxation and auditing bodies, and create the financial statements of the company at the end of the fiscal year.
Financial trader: Financial traders buy and sell financial products such as assets, shares and bonds for private clients, banks or companies. They monitor the financial markets closely and aim to maximise profit and to minimise risk through their transactions.
Venture capitalist: Venture capitalists invest in young or small startup companies by providing private funding. They research potential markets and particular product opportunities to help business owners develop or expand a business. They provide business advice, technical expertise, and network contacts based on their experience and activities. They do not assume executive managerial positions within the company, but have a say in its strategic direction.
Insurance product manager: Insurance product managers set and direct the development of new insurance products, following the product lifecycle policy and the general insurance strategy. They also coordinate the marketing and sales activities related to the specific insurance products of the company. Insurance product managers inform their sales managers (or the sales department) about their newly developed insurance products.
Insurance risk consultant: Insurance risk consultants prepare reports for insurance underwriters. For this purpose, they undertake surveys in order to determine the potential financial risk for personal products, properties or sites.
Real estate agent: Real estate agents administer the sales or letting process of residential, commercial properties or land on behalf of their clients. They investigate the property’s condition and assess its value in order to offer the best price to their clients. They negotiate, compose a sales contract or a rental contract and liaise with third parties in order to realize the stated objectives during transactions. They undertake research to determine the legality of a property sale before it is sold and make sure the transaction is not subject to any disputes or restrictions.
Insurance broker: Insurance brokers promote, sell and provide advice on various insurance policies such as life insurance, health insurance, accident insurance and fire insurance to individuals and organisations. They also work as intermediaries between individuals or organisations and insurance companies, and negotiate the best insurance policies for their clients, arranging insurance cover where needed. Insurance brokers engage with new prospective clients, provide them with quotes for their policy needs, assist them in the signing of new insurance contracts and propose specific solutions to their specific problems.
Financial broker: Financial brokers undertake financial market activities on behalf of their clients. They monitor securities, financial documentation of their clients, market trends and conditions and other legal requirements. They plan buying and selling activities and calculate transactions costs.
Securities broker: Securities brokers create the connection between the investors and the available investment opportunities. They purchase and sell securities on their clients’ behalf, based on their expertise in the financial markets. They monitor the performance of their clients’ securities, assessing their stability or speculative tendencies. Securities brokers calculate the securities’ price and place orders.
Dividend analyst: Dividend analysts calculate and allocate dividends and interest incomes of a company’s earnings to a category of its shareholders. They assess business systems and processes in order to identify user needs and to deliver appropriate solutions. They also undertake dividend forecasts on amounts and payment schedules and identify potential risks, based on their financial and market price expertise.
- Modern portfolio theory – ESCO