Occupations

Child Topics

0 - Armed forces occupations

Description Armed forces occupations include all jobs held by members of the armed forces. Members of the armed forces are those personnel who are currently serving in the armed forces, including auxiliary services, whether on a voluntary or compulsory basis, and who are not free to accept civilian employment and are subject to military discipline. Included are regular members of the army, navy, air force and other military services, as well as conscripts enrolled for military training or other service for a specified period. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups: 01 Commissioned Armed Forces Officers 02 Non-commissioned Armed Forces Officers 03 Armed Forces Occupations, Other Ranks Excluded from this group are: – jobs held by persons in civilian employment of government establishments concerned with defence issues; – police (other than military police); – customs inspectors and members of border or other armed civilian services. Notes Many jobs performed by members of the armed forces are similar, in terms of the nature of the work performed, to civilian occupations such as medical doctors, radio operators, cooks, secretaries and heavy truck drivers. Conceptually, it may be appropriate, therefore, to classify such jobs in the armed forces with similar civilian jobs. This approach is adopted in several national occupation classifications. Typically such classifications also identify a number of military-specific occupational groups. In many countries, however, it is not possible to produce information about the nature of the work performed by members of the armed forces. In adapting ISCO-08 for national purposes countries may wish, therefore, to consider what approach best suits their circumstances and user needs. For purposes of international comparability, however, where data pertaining to members of the armed forces are reported and classified by occupation, they should be included, where possible, in ISCO-08 Major Group 0: Armed Forces Occupations. Alternative titles ISCO Group 0 Sources ESCO
9 Sub topics in this topic

1 - Managers

Managers plan, direct, coordinate and evaluate the overall activities of enterprises, governments and other organizations, or of organizational units within them, and formulate and review their policies, laws, rules and regulations. Competent performance in most occupations in this major group requires skills at the fourth ISCO skill level, except for Sub-major Group 14: Hospitality, Retail and Other Services Managers, for which skills at the third ISCO skill level are generally required. Tasks performed by managers usually include: formulating and advising on the policy, budgets, laws and regulations of enterprises, governments and other organizational units; establishing objectives and standards and formulating and evaluating programmes and policies and procedures for their implementation; ensuring appropriate systems and procedures are developed and implemented to provide budgetary control; authorizing material, human and financial resources to implement policies and programmes; monitoring and evaluating performance of the organization or enterprise and of its staff; selecting or approving the selection of staff; ensuring compliance with health and safety requirements; planning and directing daily operations; representing and negotiating on behalf of the government, enterprise or organizational unit managed in meetings and other forums. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
  • 11 Chief Executives, Senior Officials and Legislators
  • 12 Administrative and Commercial Managers
  • 13 Production and Specialized Services Managers
  • 14 Hospitality, Retail and Other Services Managers
Notes In distinguishing between managers classified in Major Group 1: Managers, and supervisors, classified in other major groups, it should be noted that both managers and supervisors may plan, organize, coordinate, control and direct the work done by others. In addition, managers usually have responsibility for and make decisions about: the overall strategic and operational direction of a business or organizational unit (for example about the kinds, quantity and quality of goods to be produced); budgets (how much money is to be spent and for what purposes); and the selection, appointment and dismissal of staff. Supervisors may provide advice and assistance to managers on these matters, especially in relation to staff selection and dismissal, but do not have authority to make decisions. It should be noted that it is not a necessary condition that managers have responsibility for all three of strategic and operational direction, budgets and staff selection and dismissal. The degree of autonomy they exercise may also vary. The critical difference is that supervisors are responsible only for the supervision of the activities of other workers, whereas managers have overall responsibility for the operations of an organizational unit.
46 Sub topics in this topic

4 - Clerical support workers

Description Clerical support workers record, organize, store, compute and retrieve information, and perform a number of clerical duties in connection with money-handling operations, travel arrangements, requests for information, and appointments. Competent performance in most occupations in this major group requires skills at the second ISCO skill level. Tasks performed by clerical support workers usually include: stenography, typing, and operating word processors and other office machines; entering data into computers; carrying out secretarial duties; recording and computing numerical data; keeping records relating to stocks, production and transport; keeping records relating to passenger and freight transport; carrying out clerical duties in libraries; filing documents; carrying out duties in connection with mail services; preparing and checking material for printing; assisting persons who cannot read or write with correspondence; performing money-handling operations; dealing with travel arrangements; supplying information requested by clients and making appointments; operating a telephone switchboard. Supervision of other workers may be included. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups: 41 General and Keyboard Clerks 42 Customer Services Clerks 43 Numerical and Material Recording Clerks 44 Other Clerical Support Workers Alternative titles ISCO Group 4 Sources ESCO
41 Sub topics in this topic

5 - Service and sales workers

Description Services and sales workers provide personal and protective services related to travel, housekeeping, catering, personal care, protection against fire and unlawful acts; or demonstrate and sell goods in wholesale or retail shops and similar establishments, as well as at stalls and on markets. Competent performance in most occupations in this major group requires skills at the second ISCO skill level. Tasks performed by services and sales workers usually include: organizing and providing services during travel; housekeeping; preparing and serving of food and beverages; caring for children; providing personal and basic health care at homes or in institutions, as well as hairdressing, beauty treatment and companionship; telling fortunes; embalming and arranging funerals; providing security services and protecting individuals and property against fire and unlawful acts; enforcing of law and order; posing as models for advertising, artistic creation and display of goods; selling goods in wholesale or retail establishments, as well as at stalls and on markets; and demonstrating goods to potential customers. Supervision of other workers may be included. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups: 51 Personal Services Workers 52 Sales Workers 53 Personal Care Workers 54 Protective Services Workers Alternative titles ISCO Group 5 Sources ESCO
57 Sub topics in this topic

6 - Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers

Description Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers grow and harvest field or tree and shrub crops; gather wild fruits and plants; breed, tend or hunt animals; produce a variety of animal husbandry products; cultivate, conserve and exploit forests; breed or catch fish; and cultivate or gather other forms of aquatic life in order to provide food, shelter and income for themselves and their households. Competent performance in most occupations in this major group requires skills at the second ISCO skill level. Tasks performed by skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers usually include: preparing the soil; sowing, planting, spraying, fertilizing and harvesting field crops; growing fruit and other tree and shrub crops; growing garden vegetables and horticultural products; gathering wild fruits and plants; breeding, raising, tending or hunting animals mainly to obtain meat, milk, hair, fur, skin, or sericultural, apiarian or other products; cultivating, conserving and exploiting forests; breeding or catching fish; cultivating or gathering other forms of aquatic life; storing and carrying out some basic processing of their produce; selling their products to purchasers, marketing organizations or at markets. Supervision of other workers may be included. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups: 61 Market-oriented Skilled Agricultural Workers 62 Market-oriented Skilled Forestry, Fishery and Hunting Workers 63 Subsistence Farmers, Fishers, Hunters and Gatherers Alternative titles ISCO Group 6 Sources ESCO
30 Sub topics in this topic

7 - Craft and related trades workers

Description Craft and related trades workers apply specific technical and practical knowledge and skills to construct and maintain buildings; form metal; erect metal structures; set machine tools or make, fit, maintain and repair machinery, equipment or tools; carry out printing work; and produce or process foodstuffs, textiles, wooden, metal and other articles, including handicraft goods. Competent performance in most occupations in this major group requires skills at the second ISCO skill level. The work is carried out by hand and by hand-powered and other tools which are used to reduce the amount of physical effort and time required for specific tasks, as well as to improve the quality of the products. The tasks call for an understanding of all stages of the production process, the materials and tools used, and the nature and purpose of the final product. Tasks performed by craft and related trades workers usually include: constructing, maintaining and repairing buildings and other structures; casting, welding and shaping metal; installing and erecting heavy metal structures, tackle and related equipment; making machinery, tools, equipment and other metal articles; setting for operators, or setting and operating various machine tools; fitting, maintaining and repairing industrial machinery, engines, vehicles, electrical and electronic instruments and other equipment; making precision instruments, jewellery, household and other precious metal articles, pottery, glass and related products; producing handicrafts; executing printing work; producing and processing foodstuffs and various articles made of wood, textiles, leather and related materials. Supervision of other workers may be included. Self-employed craft and related trades workers, who operate their own businesses either independently or with assistance from a small number of others, may also perform a range of tasks associated with management of the business, account and record keeping and client service, although such tasks would not normally comprise the major component of the work. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups: 71 Building and Related Trades Workers (excluding electricians) 72 Metal, Machinery and Related Trades Workers 73 Handicraft and Printing Workers 74 Electrical and Electronics Trades Workers 75 Food Processing, Woodworking, Garment and Other Craft and Related Trades Workers Alternative titles ISCO Group 7 Sources ESCO
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8 - Plant and machine operators and assemblers

Description Plant and machine operators and assemblers operate and monitor industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment on the spot or by remote control; drive and operate trains, motor vehicles and mobile machinery and equipment; or assemble products from component parts according to strict specifications and procedures. Competent performance in most occupations in this major group requires skills at the second ISCO skill level. The work mainly calls for experience with and an understanding of industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment, as well as an ability to cope with machine-paced operations and to adapt to technological innovations. Tasks performed by plant and machine operators and assemblers usually include: operating and monitoring mining or other industrial machinery and equipment for processing metal, minerals, glass, ceramics, wood, paper or chemicals; operating and monitoring machinery and equipment used to produce articles made of metal, minerals, chemicals, rubber, plastics, wood, paper, textiles, fur or leather, and which process foodstuffs and related products; driving and operating trains and motor vehicles; driving, operating and monitoring mobile industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment; and assembling products from component parts according to strict specifications and procedures. Supervision of other workers may be included. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups: 81 Stationary Plant and Machine Operators 82 Assemblers 83 Drivers and Mobile Plant Operators Note Operators of machinery that involves automated control of multiple processes or functions are included in Minor Group 313: Process control technicians. Alternative titles ISCO Group 8 Sources ESCO
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9 - Elementary occupations

Description Elementary occupations involve the performance of simple and routine tasks which may require the use of hand-held tools and considerable physical effort. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the first ISCO skill level. Tasks performed by workers in elementary occupations usually include: cleaning, restocking supplies and performing basic maintenance in apartments, houses, kitchens, hotels, offices and other buildings; washing cars and windows; helping in kitchens and performing simple tasks in food preparation; delivering messages or goods; carrying luggage and handling baggage and freight; stocking vending-machines or reading and emptying meters; collecting and sorting refuse; sweeping streets and similar places; performing various simple farming, fishing, hunting or trapping tasks; performing simple tasks connected with mining, construction and manufacturing including product-sorting; packing and unpacking produce by hand, and filling shelves; providing various street services; pedalling or hand-guiding vehicles to transport passengers and goods; driving animal-drawn vehicles or machinery. Supervision of other workers may be included. Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups: 91 Cleaners and Helpers 92 Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Labourers 93 Labourers in Mining, Construction, Manufacturing and Transport 94 Food Preparation Assistants 95 Street and Related Sales and Services Workers 96 Refuse Workers and Other Elementary Workers Alternative titles ISCO Group 9 Sources ESCO
50 Sub topics in this topic