Design principles

Description

The elements used in design such as unity, scale, proportion, balance, symmetry, space, form, texture, colour, light, shade and congruence and their application into practice.

Alternative labels

space
congruence
proportion
scope of design principles
colour
texture
shade
balance
symmetry
form
scale
range of design principles
unity
light
basis of design principles

Skill type

knowledge

Skill reusability level

cross-sector

Relationships with occupations

Essential knowledge

Design principles is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:

Dismantling engineer: Dismantling engineers research and plan the optimal way to dismantle industrial equipment, machinery and buildings that reached the end-of-life phase. They analyse the required work and schedule the various operations. They give team leaders instructions and supervise their work.

Ergonomist: Ergonomists analyse the design of equipment, furniture, and systems in order to improve it toward safer, healthier, and more efficient ones. They strive to improve the interaction of people with equipment and the environment.
Construction quality manager: Construction quality managers make sure the quality of the work meets standards set in the contract, as well as minimum legislative standards. They establish procedures to check quality, perform inspections, and propose solutions to quality shortcomings.
Model maker: Model makers create three-dimensional scale models or various designs or concepts and for various purposes, such as models of human skeletons or organs. They also mount the models on display stands so that they can be used for their final purpose such as inclusion in education activities.
Computer-aided design operator: Computer-aided design operators use computer hardware and software in order to add the technical dimensions to computer aided design drawings. Computer-aided design operators ensure all additional aspects of the created images of products are accurate and realistic. They also calculate the amount of materials needed to manufacture the products. Later the finalised digital design is processed by computer-aided manufacturing machines that produce the finished product.
Synthetic materials engineer: Synthetic materials engineers develop new synthetic materials processes or improve existing ones. They design and construct installations and machines for the production of synthetic materials and examine samples of raw materials in order to ensure quality.
Design engineer: Design engineers develop new conceptual and detailed designs. They create the look for these concepts or products and the systems used to make them. Design engineers work with engineers and marketers to enhance the functioning and efficiency of existing devices.
Interior landscaper: Interior landscapers design, install, manage and maintain indoor green spaces to customer requirements.
Design and applied arts vocational teacher: Design and applied arts vocational teachers instruct students in their specialised field of study, applied arts and crafts, which is predominantly practical in nature. They provide theoretical instruction in service of the practical skills and techniques the students must subsequently master for an applied arts and crafts profession, such as graphic designer or interior designer. Design and applied arts vocational teachers monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate their knowledge and performance on the subject of applied arts and crafts through assignments, tests and examinations.
Landscape designer: Landscape designers design and create outdoor public areas, landmarks, structures, parks, gardens and private gardens to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes.
Transport engineer: Transport engineers design and set the engineering specifications for the construction and development of roadways and transport infrastructure. They apply engineering concepts and knowledge for developing sustainable and efficient modes of transportation ranging from roads to canals, railways, and airports.
Industrial designer: Industrial designers work out ideas and develop them into designs and concepts for a wide variety of manufactured products. They integrate creativity, aesthetics, production feasibility, and market relevance in the design of new products.
Woodturner: Woodturners use a lathe to remove superfluous material from wood. The lathe turns the workpiece around its axis, as shape tools are used to obtain the desired shape.
Art director: Art directors shape the visual layout of a concept. They create innovative designs, develop artistic projects  and manage the cooperation between all aspects involved. Art directors may perform creative work in theatre, marketing, advertising, video and motion picture, fashion or online companies. They ensure that the work performed is visually appealing to audiences.
Landscape gardener: Landscape gardeners plan, construct, renovate and maintain parks, gardens and public green spaces.
Interior architect: Interior architects create plans of the interior of a home, building or other structure. They determine the specifications and distribution of the space. Interior architects combine an understanding of space with a sense for aesthetics in order to create a harmonious interior design. They draw architectural drawings using computer-aided equipment and software, or using conventional methods like paper and pen.

Optional knowledge

Design principles is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.

Biomedical engineer: Biomedical engineers combine knowledge of engineering principles and biological findings for the development of medical treatments, medicaments, and general healthcare purposes. They can develop solutions ranging from the improvement of the components in conventional medicaments up to implants developments, and tissue treatment.
Civil engineering technician: Civil engineering technicians help design and execute construction plans and take on organisational tasks, for example in the planning and monitoring, and in bidding and invoicing of construction work. They also calculate material requirements, and help with the purchasing and organising, and ensure the quality of the construction materials. Civil engineering technicians may perform technical tasks in civil engineering and develop and advise on policy implementing strategies for road works, traffic lights, sewerage and water management systems.
Equipment engineer: Equipment engineers design and maintain the machinery and equipment in manufacturing facilities. They design machinery that adjusts to the manufacturing requirements and processes. Moreover, they envision the maintenance of the machines and equipment for uninterrupted functioning.

Component engineer: Component engineers design and envision the engineering development of different small parts composing a bigger project, machine, or process. They ensure that parts are not conflicting from an engineering perspective.
Heating, ventilation, air conditioning engineer: Heating, ventilation, air conditioning engineers design and develop heating, ventilation, air conditioning and possibly refrigeration systems for usage in residences, manufacturing sites, offices, commercial buildings, etc. They strive for solutions that serve the needs of clients and respond to architectural restrictions of sites.
Satellite engineer: Satellite engineers develop, test and oversee the manufacture of satellite systems and satellite programmes. They may also develop software programs, collect and research data, and test the satellite systems. Satellite engineers can also develop systems to command and control satellites. They monitor satellites for issues and report on the behaviour of the satellite in orbit.
Civil drafter: Civil drafters draw and prepare sketches for civil engineers and architects of architectonic projects of different kinds, topographical maps, or for the reconstruction of existing structures. They lay down in the sketches all the specifications and requirements such as mathematical, aesthetic, engineering, and technical.
Wood technology engineer: Wood technology engineers develop materials and components made of wood, construct production facilities and control and monitor the production. They also examine products and materials and advise customers.
Corrosion technician: Corrosion technicians monitor the integrity from a pipeline and provide repairs to it if needed. They ensure that the pipelines are properly connected and are in line with the health and safety regulations. Corrosion technicians inspect cathodic protection systems and pipeline connection points for corrosion. They may also assist in the designing of pipelines, analyse soil and write reports on technical issues.
Bindery operator: Bindery operators tend machines that bind printed or unprinted paper into volumes using staples, twine, glue or other binding technologies.
Fire prevention and protection engineer: Fire prevention and protection engineers study, design, and developed innovative solutions aimed to the prevention of fire and the protection of people, natural sites, and urban areas. They propose suitable materials for construction, clothing, or other applications and they design detection systems aiming to prevent fire or the propagation of it.

3D printing technician: 3D Printing technicians assist in the designing and programming of products, ranging from prosthetic products to 3D miniatures. They may also provide 3D printing maintenance, check 3D renders for customers and run 3D printing tests. 3D printing technicians can also repair, maintain and clean 3D printers.
Electronics engineer: Electronic engineers research, design, and develop electronic systems such as circuits, semiconductor devices, and equipment that use electricity as a source of power. They work with capacitators, transistors, diodes or resistors to create electronic circuits and applications of use in fields such as telecommunications, acoustics, instruments, and control.
Agricultural engineer: Agricultural engineers intervene in a variety of matters within the agriculture field in combination with engineering concepts. They design and develop machinery and equipment for an efficient and sustainable exploitation of the land. They advise on the use of resources in agricultural sites comprising the usage of water and soil, harvesting methods, and waste management.
Industrial engineer: Industrial engineers design a vast array of production systems aiming to present efficient and effective solutions. They integrate a varied number of variables such as workers, technology, ergonomics, production flows, and product specifications for the design and implementation of production systems. They can specify and design for microsystems as well.
Robotics engineer: Robotics engineers design and develop robotic devices and applications in combination with mechanical engineering principles. They use pre-established designs and current developments for improving or inventing systems, machinery and equipment. They combine several knowledge fields such as computing, engineering, and electronics in the development of new engineering applications.
Mechanical engineer: Mechanical engineers research, plan and design mechanical products and systems and supervise the fabrication, operation, application, installation and repair of systems and products. They research and analyse data.
Electric power generation engineer: Electric power generation engineers design and develop systems which generate electrical power, and develop strategies for the improvement of existing electricity generation systems. They strive to conciliate sustainable solutions with efficient and affordable solutions. They engage in projects where supply of electrical energy is required.
Naval architect: Naval architects design, build, maintain and repair all types of boats from pleasure crafts to naval vessels, including submarines. They analyse floating structures and take various features into account for their designs such as the form, structure, stability, resistance, access and propulsion of hulls.
Manufacturing engineer: Manufacturing engineers design manufacturing processes for different kinds of production processes. They integrate those specificities and constraints posed by the industry or the product being produced with general and wide-spread manufacturing engineering principles into the design and planification of manufacturing processes.
Rolling stock engineer: Rolling stock engineers design and oversee the manufacturing process and installation of rail vehicles, including locomotives, carriages, wagons and multiple units. They design new trains and electrical or mechanical parts, supervise modifications and resolve technical problems. They also perform routine maintenance duties to ensure that trains are in good condition and meet quality and safety standards.
Vocational teacher: Vocational teachers instruct students in their specialised field of study, which is predominantly practical in nature. They provide theoretical instruction in service of the practical skills and techniques that the students must subsequently master in the specialised vocation of their choice and aid in the development of the according attitudes and values. Vocational teachers monitor the students progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate their knowledge and performance on the subject through assignments, tests and examinations.
Electrical engineer: Electrical engineers design and develop electrical systems, electrical equipment, components, motors, and equipment with the feature of energy transmission. They engage in large scale projects such as the design and maintenance of power stations, and the distribution of power to smaller applications such as household appliances.
Automotive engineer: Automotive engineers design and oversee the manufacturing process and operation of motor vehicles such as motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses and their respective engineering systems. They design new vehicles or mechanical parts, supervise modifications and resolve technical problems. They make sure the designs comply with cost specifications and other constraints. They also conduct research studying environmental, energy and safety aspects.
Nanoengineer: Nanoengineers combine the scientific knowledge of atomic and molecular particles with engineering principles for applications in a varied array of fields. They apply findings in chemistry, biology, and materials engineering, etc. They use technological knowledge for the improvement of existing applications or the creation of micro objects.
Precision engineer: Precision engineers design processes, machines, fixtures and other equipment that have exceptionally low engineering tolerances, are repeatable and stable over time. They ensure prototypes are built and tested and make sure the designs meet system specifications and operational requirements.
Health and safety engineer: Health and safety engineers design objects and programs by combining engineering principles and health and safety requirements. They envision the protection and well-being of the people using designed objects or performing work under designed health and safety programs. They assess facilities and the risks that they might pose (e.g. contaminant materials, ergonomics, handling of dangerous substances, etc.) in order to design and improve health and safety measures.
Drafter: Drafters prepare and create technical drawings using a special software or manual techniques, to show how something is built or works.
Acoustical engineer: Acoustical engineers study and apply the science of sound to various applications. They work in a wide range of areas including the consultation of the acoustics and elements affecting the transmission of sound in spaces for performances or recording activities. They can also consult on the levels of noise contamination for those activities that require compliance with standards on that matter.
Energy engineer: Energy engineers design new, efficient and clean ways to produce, transform, and distribute energy to improve environmental sustainability and energy efficiency. They extract energy through natural resources, such as oil or gas, or renewable and sustainable sources, such as wind or solar power. 
Construction general contractor: Construction general contractors take on the responsibility to deliver a construction project. They participate on bid processes for construction projects and hire subcontractors to deliver the different stages of the construction process from beginning to completion. They make sure subcontractors hold up their part of the agreement and work in the construction site to make sure the project is delivered in time and according to agreed standards.
Marine engineer: Marine engineers design, build, maintain and repair the hull, mechanical, electronic equipment and auxiliary systems such as engines, pumps, heating, ventilation, generator sets. They work on all types of boats from pleasure crafts to naval vessels, including submarines.
Product development engineering drafter: Product development engineering drafters design and draw blueprints to bring new concepts and products to life. They draft and draw detailed plans on how to manufacture a product.
Civil engineer: Civil engineers design, plan, and develop technical and engineering specifications for infrastructure and construction projects. They apply engineering knowledge in a vast array of projects, from the construction of infrastructure for transportation, housing projects, and luxury buildings, to the construction of natural sites. They design plans that seek to optimise materials and integrate specifications and resource allocation within the time constraints.
Aerospace engineer: Aerospace engineers develop, test and oversee the manufacture of flight vehicles such as aircrafts, missiles, and spacecrafts. The field of engineering they are active in, can be divided into two branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering.
Patent engineer: Patent engineers advise companies on different aspects of intellectual property law. They analyse inventions, and research their economic potential. They check if  patent rights have already been given out for an invention and ensure that these rights have not been affected or violated.
Instrumentation engineer: Instrumentation engineers envision and design equipment used in manufacturing processes for controlling and monitoring various engineering processes remotely. They design equipment for the monitoring of production sites such as manufacturing systems, machinery uses and production processes.
Chemical engineer: Chemical engineers design and develop large-scale chemical and physical production processes and are involved in the entire industrial process required for transforming raw materials into products.
Construction quality inspector: Construction quality inspectors monitor the activities at larger construction sites to make sure everything happens according to standards and specifications. They pay close attention to potential safety problems and take samples of products to test for conformity with standards and specifications.
Bioengineer: Bioengineers combine state of the art findings in the field of biology with engineering logics in order to develop solutions aimed at improving the well-being of society. They can develop improvement systems for natural resource conservation, agriculture, food production, genetic modification, and economic use.
Application engineer: Application engineers deal with the technical requirements, management, and design for the development of various engineering applications, such as systems, new product designs, or the improvements of processes. They are responsible for the implementation of a design or process improvement, they offer technical support for products, answer questions about the technical functionality and assist the sales team.

 


 

References

  1. Design principles – ESCO

 

Last updated on September 20, 2022

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