Tissues, cells, and functions of plant and animal organisms and their interdependencies and interactions with each other and the environment.

Alternative labels

first principles of biological science
fundamentals of biological science
first principles of biology
basics of biological science
fundamentals of biology
basics of biology
field of biology
field of biological science
science of biology

Skill type


Skill reusability level


Relationships with occupations

Essential knowledge

Biology is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:

Biomedical engineer: Biomedical engineers combine knowledge of engineering principles and biological findings for the development of medical treatments, medicaments, and general healthcare purposes. They can develop solutions ranging from the improvement of the components in conventional medicaments up to implants developments, and tissue treatment.
Biotechnical technician: Biotechnical technicians perform technological work in assistance of scientists. They work in laboratory settings where they help scientists to research, develop and test forms of biotechnology. They set up lab equipment, prepare scientific tests and gather scientific data.
Environmental education officer: Environmental education officers are responsible for promoting environmental conservation and development. They visit schools and businesses to give talks, they produce educational resources and websites, they lead guided nature walks, they provide relevant training courses, and they help with volunteer activities and conservation projects. Many gardens employ an environmental education officer to offer guidance during school visits.
Kinesiologist: Kinesiologists study and research the movement of the body; its muscles and parts. They analyse and use scientific data and methods to improve body motion, generally in humans, through an understanding of such areas as physiology, kinetics, neurology, and biology. They recognise the effects that some factors, such as body condition, have on motion and develop solutions to improve overall mechanics and mobility.
Biophysicist: Biophysicists study the existing relation between living organisms and physics. They conduct research on living organisms based on the methods of physics that aim to explain the complexity of life, predict patterns, and draw conclusions about aspects of life. Biophysicists’ research fields cover DNA, proteins, molecules, cells, and environments.
Science teacher secondary school: Science teachers at secondary schools provide education to students, commonly children and young adults, in a secondary school setting. They are usually subject teachers, specialised and instructing in their own field of study, science. They prepare lesson plans and materials, monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate the students’ knowledge and performance on the subject of science through assignments, tests and examinations.
Physiologist: Physiologists study and exert research on the functioning of different living organisms, the parts they are composed of, and their interactions. They understand the fashion in which living systems react to factors such as diseases, physical activity, and stress, and use that information to develop methods and solutions to even out the effect that those stimuli have in living bodies.
Botanical technician: Botanical technicians provide technical assistance in researching and testing different plant species to monitor their properties such as growth and structure. They collect and analyse data using laboratory equipment, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock. Botanical technicians also study plants to research their use in areas such as medicine, food and materials.
Biomedical scientist: Biomedical scientists perform all laboratory methods required as part of medical examination, treatment and research activities, particularly clinical-chemical, haematological, immuno-haematological, histological, cytological, microbiological, parasitological, mycological, serological and radiological tests. They perform analytical sample testing and report the results to the medical staff for further diagnosis. Biomedical Scientists may apply these methods in particular in the infection, blood or cellular sciences.
Biology technician: Biology technicians provide technical assistance in researching and analysing the relationship between living organisms and their environment. They use laboratory equipment to examine organic substances such as bodily fluids, medicines, plants and food. They collect and analyse data for experiments, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.
Behavioural scientist: Behavioural scientists research, observe and describe human behaviour in society. They draw conclusions on the motives that stir actions in humans, observe the various circumstances for different behaviours, and describe different personalities. They advise organisations and governmental institutions on this field. They may also analyse the behaviour of animals.
Botanist: Botanists are occupied with the maintenance of an range of plants from around the world, often in a botanic garden. They conduct scientific studies and travel in order to study plants growing in the wild. Botanists are responsible for the maintenance and development of the botanic garden.
Equine yard manager: Equine yard managers are responsible for the day to day running of the yard including managing staff, care of the horses, all aspects of health and safety and dealing with clients and owners.
Biology lecturer: Biology lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, biology. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants in the preparation of lectures and of exams, leading laboratory practices, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of biology, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Geneticist: Geneticists study and focus their research on genetics. They analyse the fashion in which genes interact, operate, and inherit traits and characteristics. Based on their research, they attend patients with inherited diseases and conditions, congenital malformations, and genetic matters at large.
Livestock worker: Livestock workers maintain the health and welfare of animals. They oversee the breeding/production and day-to-day care such as feeding and watering of animals.
Equine worker: Equine workers provide caring activities for horses and ponies.
Bioinformatics scientist: Bioinformatics scientists analyse biological processes using computer programmes. They maintain or construct databases containing biological information. Bioinformatics scientists gather and analyse biological data and may also assist scientists in various fields, including in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. They perform scientific research and statistical analyses, and report on their findings. Bioinformatics scientists may also collect DNA samples, discover data patterns and conduct genetic research.
Aquaculture biologist: Aquaculture biologists apply knowledge gained from research about aquatic animals and plant life and their interactions with each other and the environment, in order to improve aquaculture production, prevent animal health and environmental problems and to provide solutions if necessary.

Biochemist: Biochemists study and perform research on the reactions caused by chemicals in living organisms. This includes performing research for the development or improvement of chemical-based products (e.g. medicine) aimed at improving the health of living organisms and at better understanding their reactions.
Nature conservation officer: Nature conservation officers manage and improve the local environment within all the sectors of a local community. They promote awareness of and understanding about the natural environment. This work can be very varied and involve projects related to species, habitats and communities. They educate people and raise overall awareness of environmental issues.
Aquatic animal health professional: Aquatic animal health professionals diagnose, prevent and treat diseases, injuries and dysfunctions of aquatic animals by implementing appropriate sampling protocols. They supervise the use of medicines, including vaccines, and collect data on fish health, making regular reports to the appropriate personnel. They may provide care to a wide range of aquatic animals or specialise  in the treatment of a particular group or in a particular speciality area. They may provide advice, support and training to farm staff on best practice with regard to the health and welfare of the cultured organisms.
Ecologist: Ecologists carry out assessments of the health and distribution of organisms, namely people, plants, and animals, and the relationship between organisms and their environment. Ecologists usually have a specialisation area, e.g. freshwater, marine, terrestrial, fauna, and flora about which they conduct research and perform relating tasks. 
Biology teacher secondary school: Biology teachers at secondary schools provide education to students, commonly children and young adults, in a secondary school setting. They are usually subject teachers, specialised and instructing in their own field of study, biology. They prepare lesson plans and materials, monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate the students’ knowledge and performance on the subject of biology through assignments, tests and examinations.
Nanoengineer: Nanoengineers combine the scientific knowledge of atomic and molecular particles with engineering principles for applications in a varied array of fields. They apply findings in chemistry, biology, and materials engineering, etc. They use technological knowledge for the improvement of existing applications or the creation of micro objects.
Biochemistry technician: Biochemistry technicians provide technical assistance in researching, analysing and testing the reactions caused by chemicals in living organisms. They use laboratory equipment to help develop or improve chemical-based products and also collect and analyse data for experiments, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.
Microbiologist: Microbiologists study and research the life forms, characteristics, and processes of microscopic organisms. They study microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, etc. in order to diagnose and counteract the effects that these microorganisms might have in animals, in the environment, in the food industry, or in the health care industry.
Environmental engineer: Environmental engineers integrate environmental and sustainable measures in the development of projects of various natures. They seek to preserve natural resources and natural sites. They work together with engineers from other fields to envision all the implications that projects might have in order to design ways to conserve natural reserves, prevent pollution, and deploy sanitary measures.
Immunologist: Immunologists research the immune system of living organisms (e.g. human body) and the way it reacts to external infections or invasive harmful agents (e.g. virus, bacteria, parasites). They focus their study on those diseases that affect the immunology of living organisms in order to classify them for treatment.
Groom: Grooms provide practical daily horse care to ensure the horses health, welfare and safety.
They take part in exercising horses, cleaning and maintaining the stables, buildings and territory.
Agronomist: Agronomists provide consulting services to companies, agricultural cooperatives, agronomical crop growers and horticultural crop growers on the cultivation of food crops. They study the science, technology and business related to growing plants. They examine crops and perform experiments in order to improve crop yields and farms’ production. Agronomists also examine the most effective ways to harvest and cultivate plants.
Curator of horticulture: Curators of horticulture develop and maintain the botanical collections, exhibits and landscapes of a botanical garden.
Conservation scientist: Conservation scientists manage the quality of specific forests, parks and other natural resources. They protect the wildlife habitat, biodiversity, scenic value, and other unique attributes of preserves and conservation lands. Conservation scientists perform field work.
Biologist: Biologists study living organisms and life in its broader extent in combination with its environment. Through research, they strive to explain the functional mechanisms, interactions, and evolution of organisms.
Bacteriology technician: Bacteriology technicians provide technical assistance in researching and testing bacteria using laboratory equipment. They collect and analyse data for experiments, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.
Biochemical engineer: Biochemical engineers research on the field of life science striving for new discoveries. They convert those findings into chemical solutions that can improve the wellbeing of society such as vaccines, tissue repair, crops improvement and green technologies advances such as cleaner fuels from natural resources.
Bioengineer: Bioengineers combine state of the art findings in the field of biology with engineering logics in order to develop solutions aimed at improving the well-being of society. They can develop improvement systems for natural resource conservation, agriculture, food production, genetic modification, and economic use.
Zoology technician: Zoology technicians provide technical assistance in researching and testing animal species using laboratory equipment. They aid in research concerning animals as well as their environments and ecosystems. They collect and analyse data, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.

Optional knowledge

Biology is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.

Pharmacologist: Pharmacologists study the manner in which drugs and medicaments interact with organisms, living systems, and their parts (i.e. cells, tissues, or organs). Their research aims at identifying substances that can be ingested by humans and that exert adequate biochemical functions for curing illnesses.
Environmental scientist: Environmental scientists identify problems and find solutions in order to minimize environmental hazards by performing analysis on samples such as air, water or soil. They advise on or develop environmental policies and aim to improve water supplies preservation and manage waste disposal sites. Environmental scientists perform environmental risk assessments and analyse the environmental impact of new solutions, construction sites or environmental changes ensuring the environmental regulations are followed.
Water treatment systems operator: Water treatment system operators treat water to ensure safety for drinking, irrigation, or other use. They operate and maintain water treatment equipment and ensure the water is safe for bottling and use in food production by thoroughly testing before distribution, and by meeting environmental standards.
Agricultural technician: Agricultural technicians collect and conduct experiments and tests on agriculture and aquaculture specimens. They provide support to scientists and farmers and also analyse and report on conditions in the collected specimens’ environments.
Environmental mining engineer: Environmental mining engineers oversee the environmental performance of mining operations. They develop and implement environmental systems and strategies to minimise environmental impacts.
Toxicologist: Toxicologists study the effects that chemical substances or biological and physical agents have in living organisms, more specifically, on the environment and on the animal and human health. They determine doses of the exposure to substances for arising toxic effects in environments, people, and living organisms, and also perform experiments on animals and cell cultures.
Dewatering technician: Dewatering technicians install and operate pumps, spares, pipe ranges, and vacuum dewatering systems to collect and remove liquids and chemicals.
Herbal therapist: Herbal therapists use herbal medicine to relief pain and treat illnesses such as allergies, chronic physical conditions or stress-related conditions. They study the properties and benefits of plants and create a personalised treatment plan for the patients.
Oceanographer: Oceanographers study and perform research on matters related to the sea and oceans. Oceanographers divide their expertise in four main branches of research which are physical oceanographers whose research focus on waves and tides, chemical oceanographers whose study address the chemical constitution of sea waters, marine biologists whose focal point is the study of living organisms, ecosystems and  their interaction underwater, and geological oceanographer whose research refers to the bottom of seas and their plaques.
Agricultural engineer: Agricultural engineers intervene in a variety of matters within the agriculture field in combination with engineering concepts. They design and develop machinery and equipment for an efficient and sustainable exploitation of the land. They advise on the use of resources in agricultural sites comprising the usage of water and soil, harvesting methods, and waste management.
Scientific laboratory technician: Scientific laboratory technicians carry out laboratory-based research, analysis and testing and support life science professionals. They sample, test, measure, research and analyse in areas such as biology, biotechnology, environmental science, forensic science and pharmacology. Scientific laboratory technicians also observe and monitor laboratory activities, record test sequences and analyse the results.
Mechanical engineer: Mechanical engineers research, plan and design mechanical products and systems and supervise the fabrication, operation, application, installation and repair of systems and products. They research and analyse data.
Environmental programme coordinator: Environmental programme coordinators develop programmes for the improvement of environmental sustainability and efficiency within a organisation or institution. They inspect sites in order to monitor an organisation’s or institution’s compliance with environmental legislation. They also ensure education for the public on environmental concerns.
Secondary school teacher: Secondary school teachers provide education to students, commonly children and young adults, in a secondary school setting. They are usually specialist subject teachers, who instruct in their own field of study. They prepare lesson plans and materials, monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary and evaluate their knowledge and performance through assignments, tests and examinations.
Soil scientist: Soil scientists research and study the scientific discipline concerning soil. They advise on how to improve soil quality to support nature, food production or human infrastructure using surveying techniques, irrigation techniques and erosion reduction measures. They make sure to conserve and restore land suffering from intense farming or human interaction.
Physicist: Physicists are scientists who study physical phenomena. They focus their research depending on their specialisation, which can range from atomic particle physics to the study of phenomena in the universe. They apply their findings for the improvement of society by contributing to the development of energy supplies, treatment of illness, game development, cutting-edge equipment, and daily use objects.
Palaeontologist: Palaeontologists research and analyse forms of life that existed in ancient eras of the planet Earth. They strive to define the evolutionary path and the interaction with different geological areas of all kinds of once organisms and such plants, pollen and spores, invertebrate and vertebrate animals, humans, traces such as footprints, and ecology and climate.
Soil surveying technician: Soil surveying technicians analyse soil by carrying out technical surveying tasks, using soil surveying techniques. They focus on the process of classifying soil types and other soil properties. Soil surveying technicians operate surveying equipment and utilise programs to retrieve and interpret relevant data, and perform computations as required.
Environmental geologist: Environmental geologists study how mineral operations may impact the composition and physical characteristics of the earth and its resources. They provide advice on issues such as land reclamation and environmental pollution.
Thanatology researcher: Thanatology researchers study death and the dying in a variety of scientific fields such as psychology, sociology, physiology and anthropology. They contribute to the growth of knowledge on aspects of death such as the psychological phenomena the dying and those around them are experiencing.
Food science lecturer: Food science lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, food science, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of food science, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Environmental health inspector: Environmental health inspectors carry out investigations to ensure that areas, organisations and companies comply with environmental and public health legislation. They evaluate environmental complaints, provide reports on their findings and work to prevent future hazards or noncompliance with current policies. Environmental health inspectors perform consultations to promote public health and safety.
Industrial waste inspector: Industrial waste inspectors conduct controls in companies to ensure they comply with waste and environmental regulations. They check the documentation related to waste management, they collect samples for analysis and observe the industrial practices. They may advise or preventive or corrective actions to improve industrial waste management and disposal.
Anthropologist: Anthropologists research all aspects of life pertaining to humans. They study the various civilisations that have existed along the time and their ways of organisation. They attempt to analyse the physical, societal, linguistic, political, economical, philosophical, and cultural aspects of different people. The aim of their studies is to understand and describe the past of humanity and solve topical societal problems. They explore different perspectives such as philosophical anthropology.
Biometrician: Biometricians perform research in the field of biometrics. They carry statistical or biological research projects by measuring fingerprints, retinas, and human shapes for medical or industrial applications.
Epidemiologist: Epidemiologists centre their research on origin and causes for illness eruption in humans. They determine the way in which diseases are spread out and propose risk preventive measures to health policy organisms.
Biomedical scientist advanced: Biomedical scientists advanced undertake advanced translational research in the biomedical science field and perform as educators of their professions or as other professionals.
Research manager:
Research managers oversee the research and development functions of a research facility or program or university. They support the executive staff, coordinate work activities, and monitor staff and research projects. They may work in a wide array of sectors, such as the chemical, technical and life sciences sector. Research managers can also advise on research and execute research themselves.
Complementary therapist: Complementary therapists use a range of complementary and alternative therapies to work simultaneously with the clients` body, mind, and spirit in a holistic approach. They offer practices and services for holistic wellbeing, health maintenance, health education, health promotion and prevention of illness, along with the sustainable treatment of certain illnesses, especially chronic illnesses. Their practices include but are not limited to acupuncture, aromatherapy, banotherapy, homeopathy, and herbal medicine.
Civil engineer: Civil engineers design, plan, and develop technical and engineering specifications for infrastructure and construction projects. They apply engineering knowledge in a vast array of projects, from the construction of infrastructure for transportation, housing projects, and luxury buildings, to the construction of natural sites. They design plans that seek to optimise materials and integrate specifications and resource allocation within the time constraints.
Embalmer: Embalmers arrange for the removal of bodies of deceased persons from the place of death and they prepare the bodies for burials and cremations. They clean and disinfect the bodies, use make-up to create the impression of a more natural appearance and hide any visible damage. They are in close contact with funeral services directors in order to comply with the wishes of the deceased family members.
Metrology technician: Metrology technicians apply their practical knowledge of metrology to calibrate measuring instruments, test equipment and analyse their performance. They ensure that the evaluated equipment meets requirements for precision, performance and accuracy. They report about their work and advise on technical matters concerning measuring instruments.
Material testing technician: Material testing technicians perform a variety of tests on materials such as soils, concrete, masonry and asphalt, in order to verify conformance to intended usage cases and specifications.
Chemical engineer: Chemical engineers design and develop large-scale chemical and physical production processes and are involved in the entire industrial process required for transforming raw materials into products.
Metrologist: Metrologists study and practice the science of measurement. They develop quantity systems, units of measurement and measuring methods to be used in science. Metrologists establish new methods and tools to quantify and better understand information.
Natural resources consultant: Natural resources consultant provide advice on the protection and management of natural resources, namely fauna, flora, soil and water to companies and governments which exploit these resources. They strive to guide companies on an appropriate policy for exploiting natural resources in industrial contexts, raise awareness on health issues, and ensure the conservation of ecosystems for sustainable interventions in natural habitats.




  1. Biology – ESCO


Last updated on September 20, 2022