Scientific research methodology

Description

The theoretical methodology used in scientific research involving doing background research, constructing an hypothesis, testing it, analysing data and concluding the results.

Alternative labels

methods of research
research methodology
theoretical methodology in scientific research
process of scientific research
scientific methods

Skill type

knowledge

Skill reusability level

cross-sector

Relationships with occupations

Essential knowledge

Scientific research methodology is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:

Biomedical engineer: Biomedical engineers combine knowledge of engineering principles and biological findings for the development of medical treatments, medicaments, and general healthcare purposes. They can develop solutions ranging from the improvement of the components in conventional medicaments up to implants developments, and tissue treatment.
Criminologist: Criminologists study conditions pertaining to humans such as the social and psychological aspects that could lead them to commit criminal acts. They observe and analyse different factors ranging from behavioural conditions up to social background and environment of suspects in order to advise organisations on the prevention of crime.
Historian: Historians research, analyze, interpret, and present the past of human societies. They analyse documents, sources, and traces from the past in order to understand the past societies.
Chemist: Chemists perform laboratory research by testing and analysing the chemical structure of substances.They translate the research results into industrial production processes which are further used in the development or improvement of products. Chemists are also testing the quality of the manufactured products and their environmental impact.
Kinesiologist: Kinesiologists study and research the movement of the body; its muscles and parts. They analyse and use scientific data and methods to improve body motion, generally in humans, through an understanding of such areas as physiology, kinetics, neurology, and biology. They recognise the effects that some factors, such as body condition, have on motion and develop solutions to improve overall mechanics and mobility.
Cosmetic chemist: Cosmetic chemists develop formulas in order to create and test new cosmetic products and improve existing cosmetic products such as perfumes and fragrances, lipstick, waterproof lotions and makeup, hair dye, soaps and detergents with special properties, topical medicines or health supplements.
Environmental scientist: Environmental scientists identify problems and find solutions in order to minimize environmental hazards by performing analysis on samples such as air, water or soil. They advise on or develop environmental policies and aim to improve water supplies preservation and manage waste disposal sites. Environmental scientists perform environmental risk assessments and analyse the environmental impact of new solutions, construction sites or environmental changes ensuring the environmental regulations are followed.
Sociologist: Sociologists focus their research on explaining social behaviour and the way people have organised themselves as a society. They research and explain the way societies have evolved by describing their legal, political, and economic systems and their cultural expressions.
Biophysicist: Biophysicists study the existing relation between living organisms and physics. They conduct research on living organisms based on the methods of physics that aim to explain the complexity of life, predict patterns, and draw conclusions about aspects of life. Biophysicists’ research fields cover DNA, proteins, molecules, cells, and environments.
Media scientist: Media scholars research the role and impact that media has on the society. They observe and document the usage of different kinds of media such as newspapers, radio and TV and the response from society.
Archaeologist: Archaeologists research and study past civilisations and settlements through collecting and inspecting material remains. They analyse and draw conclusions on a wide array of matters such as hierarchy systems, linguistics, culture, and politics based on the study of objects, structures, fossils, relics, and artifacts left behind by these peoples. Archaeologists utilise various interdisciplinary methods such as stratigraphy, typology, 3D analysis, mathematics, and modelling.
Physiologist: Physiologists study and exert research on the functioning of different living organisms, the parts they are composed of, and their interactions. They understand the fashion in which living systems react to factors such as diseases, physical activity, and stress, and use that information to develop methods and solutions to even out the effect that those stimuli have in living bodies.
Fact checker: Fact checkers make certain that all the information in texts that are ready for publishing is correct. They research the facts thoroughly and correct errors.
Botanical technician: Botanical technicians provide technical assistance in researching and testing different plant species to monitor their properties such as growth and structure. They collect and analyse data using laboratory equipment, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock. Botanical technicians also study plants to research their use in areas such as medicine, food and materials.
Biology technician: Biology technicians provide technical assistance in researching and analysing the relationship between living organisms and their environment. They use laboratory equipment to examine organic substances such as bodily fluids, medicines, plants and food. They collect and analyse data for experiments, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.
Social work practice educator: Social work practice educators teach, supervise and assess social work students prior, during and after they have obtained their degree. They contribute to their placement and have the authority to recommend students on the basis of appropriate evidence.
Social work researcher: Social work researchers manage research projects aiming to investigate and provide reports on social issues. They first perform research by gathering information through interviews, focus groups and questionnaires; followed by organising and analysing the gathered information using computer software packages. They analyse social problems and needs, and the different ways and techniques to respond to them.
Research engineer: Research engineers combine research skills and knowledge of engineering principles aiming to improve through research, processes, techniques, products, and systems at large. They perform experiments, for instance of natural structures such as honeycombs or tear-resistant spiderwebs, before determining the viability of alternative methods on a larger scale.
Climatologist: Climatologists study the average change in weather and climate from a long-term perspective. They research and analyse historic weather conditions in order to forecast climatic conditions trends such as changes in temperature, global warming, or regional evolutive weather conditions. They use these findings for advising on environmental policy, construction, agricultural projects, and societal matters.
Toxicologist: Toxicologists study the effects that chemical substances or biological and physical agents have in living organisms, more specifically, on the environment and on the animal and human health. They determine doses of the exposure to substances for arising toxic effects in environments, people, and living organisms, and also perform experiments on animals and cell cultures.
Lexicographer: Lexicographers write and compile the content for dictionaries. They also determine which new words are common use and should be included in the glossary.
Oceanographer: Oceanographers study and perform research on matters related to the sea and oceans. Oceanographers divide their expertise in four main branches of research which are physical oceanographers whose research focus on waves and tides, chemical oceanographers whose study address the chemical constitution of sea waters, marine biologists whose focal point is the study of living organisms, ecosystems and  their interaction underwater, and geological oceanographer whose research refers to the bottom of seas and their plaques.
Political scientist: Political scientists study political behaviour, activity and systems, including the elements that fall therein. Their study of the field ranges from the origins and evolution of various political systems to topical matters such as decision-making processes, political behaviour, political trends, society, and power perspectives. They advise governments and institutional organisations on governance matters.
Hydrologist: Hydrologists research and study the quality, current challenges, and distribution of water in the Earth. They study water supply from rivers, streams, and springs to determine their adequate and sustainable use. Together with a cross functional team of professionals, they plan and develop how water can be supplied to cities and urban areas while ensuring efficiency and resource conservation.
Analytical chemist: Analytical chemists research and describe the chemical composition of substances. Moreover, they draw conclusions related to the behaviour of such substances in different conditions.
Astronomer: Astronomers research the formation, structures, properties, and development of celestial bodies and interstellar matter. They use ground-based equipment and space-based equipment to collect data about the space for research purposes.
Educational researcher: Educational researches perform research in the area of education. They strive to broaden the knowledge on how education processes, educational systems, and individuals (teachers and learners) work. They foresee areas of improvements and develop plans for the implementation of innovations. They advise legislators and policy makers on educational issues and assist in the planning of educational policies.
Intellectual property consultant: Intellectual property consultants provide advice on the usage of intellectual property assests such as patents, copyrights, and trademarks. They help clients to value, in monetary terms, intellectual property portfolios, to follow adequate legal procedures for protecting of such property, and to perform patent brokerage activities.
University research assistant: University research assistants conduct academic research for the university or college they are employed in. They may assist professors they are affiliated with, their supervisor, in their research or develop their own in the related field of that professor.
Business analyst:
Business analysts research and understand the strategic position of businesses and companies in relation to their markets and their stakeholders. They analyse and present their views on how the company, from many perspectives, can improve its strategic position and internal corporate structure. They assess needs for change, communication methods, technology, IT tools, new standards and certifications.
Librarian: Librarians manage libraries and perform related library services. They manage, collect and develop information resources. They make information available, accessible and discoverable to any kind of user.
Geneticist: Geneticists study and focus their research on genetics. They analyse the fashion in which genes interact, operate, and inherit traits and characteristics. Based on their research, they attend patients with inherited diseases and conditions, congenital malformations, and genetic matters at large.
Government planning inspector: Government planning inspectors monitor the development and implementation of government plans and policies, as well as processing planning and policy proposals, and performing inspections of planning procedures.
Employment programme coordinator: Employment programme coordinators research and develop employment programmes and policies to improve employment standards and reduce issues such as unemployment. They supervise promotion of policy plans and coordinate implementation.
Aquaculture biologist: Aquaculture biologists apply knowledge gained from research about aquatic animals and plant life and their interactions with each other and the environment, in order to improve aquaculture production, prevent animal health and environmental problems and to provide solutions if necessary.

Communication scientist: Communication scientists research the different aspects of the planning, collecting, creating, organizing, preserving, using, evaluating and exchanging information through verbal or non-verbal communication. They study the interactions between groups, individuals, and individuals with technologies (robots).
Religion scientific researcher: Religion scientific researchers study concepts related to religions, beliefs and spirituality. They apply rationality in the pursue of morality and ethics by studying of scripture, religion, discipline, and divine law.
Biochemist: Biochemists study and perform research on the reactions caused by chemicals in living organisms. This includes performing research for the development or improvement of chemical-based products (e.g. medicine) aimed at improving the health of living organisms and at better understanding their reactions.
ICT research consultant: ICT research consultants perform targeted ICT research and provide a final report to the client. They also use ICT tools to design questionnaires for surveys, analyse the results, write reports, present the results and make recommendations based on the research findings.
Mathematician: Mathematicians study and deepen existing mathematical theories in order to expand the knowledge and find new paradigms within the field. They can apply this knowledge to challenges presented in engineering and scientific projects in order to assure that measurements, quantities, and mathematic laws prove their viability.
Radiographer: Radiographers use a range of technologies to examine, treat and care for patients. They work in the fields of Medical Imaging, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine and apply ionising radiation, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and radioactive sources.
Physicist: Physicists are scientists who study physical phenomena. They focus their research depending on their specialisation, which can range from atomic particle physics to the study of phenomena in the universe. They apply their findings for the improvement of society by contributing to the development of energy supplies, treatment of illness, game development, cutting-edge equipment, and daily use objects.
Palaeontologist: Palaeontologists research and analyse forms of life that existed in ancient eras of the planet Earth. They strive to define the evolutionary path and the interaction with different geological areas of all kinds of once organisms and such plants, pollen and spores, invertebrate and vertebrate animals, humans, traces such as footprints, and ecology and climate.
Aquatic animal health professional: Aquatic animal health professionals diagnose, prevent and treat diseases, injuries and dysfunctions of aquatic animals by implementing appropriate sampling protocols. They supervise the use of medicines, including vaccines, and collect data on fish health, making regular reports to the appropriate personnel. They may provide care to a wide range of aquatic animals or specialise  in the treatment of a particular group or in a particular speciality area. They may provide advice, support and training to farm staff on best practice with regard to the health and welfare of the cultured organisms.
Mineralogist: Mineralogists study the composition, structure and other physical aspects of the earth. They analyse various minerals and use scientific equipment to determine their structure and properties. Their work mostly focuses on the classification and identification of minerals by taking samples and performing further tests, analysis and examinations.
Human rights officer: Human rights officers investigate and handle human rights violations, as well as develop plans to reduce violations and to ensure compliance to human rights legislation. They investigate complaints by examining information and interviewing victims and perpetrators, and communicate with organisations involved with human rights activities.
Nurse responsible for general care: Nurses responsible for general care are in charge of promoting and restoring patients` health by providing physical and psychological support to patients, friends, and families. They also supervise assigned team members.
Biochemistry technician: Biochemistry technicians provide technical assistance in researching, analysing and testing the reactions caused by chemicals in living organisms. They use laboratory equipment to help develop or improve chemical-based products and also collect and analyse data for experiments, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.
Thanatology researcher: Thanatology researchers study death and the dying in a variety of scientific fields such as psychology, sociology, physiology and anthropology. They contribute to the growth of knowledge on aspects of death such as the psychological phenomena the dying and those around them are experiencing.
Economist: Economists perform research and develop theories in the field of economics, whether for microeconomic or macroeconomic analysis. They study trends, analyse statistical data, and to some extent work with economic mathematical models in order to advise companies, governments, and related institutions. They advise on product feasibility, trend forecasts, emerging markets, tax policies, and consumer trends.
ICT research manager: ICT research managers plan, manage and monitor research activities and evaluate emerging trends in the information and communication technology field to assess their relevance. They also design and oversee staff training on the use of new technology and recommend ways to implement new products and solutions that will maximise benefits for the organisation.
Aerodynamics engineer: Aerodynamics engineers perform aerodynamics analysis to make sure the designs of transport equipment meet aerodynamics and performance requirements. They contribute to designing engine and engine components, and issue technical reports for the engineering staff and customers. They coordinate with other engineering departments to check that designs perform as specified. Aerodynamics engineers conduct research to assess adaptability of equipment and materials. They also analyse proposals to evaluate production time and feasibility.
Osteopath: Osteopaths provide therapeutic treatment of disorders in the musculoskeletal system to patients with physical issues such as back pain, joint pain and digestive disorders. They mainly use manipulation of the body tissues, touch, stretching and massage techniques to relieve the patients` pain and promote a healthy lifestyle.
Environmental expert: Environmental experts search for technological solutions to tackle environmental problems. They detect and analyse environmental issues and develop new technological production processes to counter these problematic issues. They research the effect of their technological innovations and present their findings in scientific reports.
Microbiologist: Microbiologists study and research the life forms, characteristics, and processes of microscopic organisms. They study microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, etc. in order to diagnose and counteract the effects that these microorganisms might have in animals, in the environment, in the food industry, or in the health care industry.
Physics technician: Physics technicians monitor physical processes and perform tests for manufacturing, educational or scientific purposes. They work in laboratories, schools or production facilities where they assist physicists in their work. Physics technicians perform technical or practical work and report about their results.
Linguist: Linguists study languages scientifically. They master languages and can interpret them in terms of their grammatical, semantic, and phonetic characteristics. They research the evolution of language and the way it is used by societies.
Statistician: Statisticians collect, tabulate, and, most importantly, analyse quantitative information coming from a varied array of fields. They interpret and analyse statistical studies on fields such as health, demographics, finance, business, etc. and advise based on patterns and drawn analysis.
Anthropologist: Anthropologists research all aspects of life pertaining to humans. They study the various civilisations that have existed along the time and their ways of organisation. They attempt to analyse the physical, societal, linguistic, political, economical, philosophical, and cultural aspects of different people. The aim of their studies is to understand and describe the past of humanity and solve topical societal problems. They explore different perspectives such as philosophical anthropology.
Psychotherapist: Psychotherapists assist and treat healthcare users with varying degrees of psychological, psychosocial, or psychosomatic behavioural disorders and pathogenic conditions by means of psychotherapeutic methods. They promote personal development and well-being and provide advice on improving relationships, capabilities, and problem-solving techniques. They use science-based psychotherapeutic methods such as behavioural therapy, existential analysis and logotherapy, psychoanalysis or systemic family therapy in order to guide the patients in their development and help them search for appropriate solutions to their problems. Psychotherapists are not required to have academic degrees in psychology or a medical qualification in psychiatry. It is an independent occupation from psychology, psychiatry, and counselling.
Biometrician: Biometricians perform research in the field of biometrics. They carry statistical or biological research projects by measuring fingerprints, retinas, and human shapes for medical or industrial applications.
Immunologist: Immunologists research the immune system of living organisms (e.g. human body) and the way it reacts to external infections or invasive harmful agents (e.g. virus, bacteria, parasites). They focus their study on those diseases that affect the immunology of living organisms in order to classify them for treatment.
Epidemiologist: Epidemiologists centre their research on origin and causes for illness eruption in humans. They determine the way in which diseases are spread out and propose risk preventive measures to health policy organisms.
Seismologist: Seismologists study the movement of tectonic plaques in the Earth which causes the propagation of seismic waves and earthquakes. They study and observe the various sources causing earthquakes such as volcanic activity, atmospheric phenomena, or the behaviour of oceans. They provide their scientific observations to prevent dangers in construction and infrastructure.
Geographer: Geographers are scholars who study human and physical geography. Depending on their specialisation, they study political, economical and cultural aspects of humanity contained within human geography. Moreover, they study land formations, soils, natural frontiers, and water flows contained in physical geography.
Cosmologist: Cosmologists focus on the study of the universe as a whole, which is made up by its origin, evolution and ultimate fate. They use tools and scientific instruments to observe and study other galaxies and astronomical objects such as stars, black holes, planets and other celestial bodies.
Philosopher: Philosophers study and argument over general and structural problems pertaining to society, humans and individuals. They have well-developed rational and argumentative abilities to engage in discussion related to existence, value systems, knowledge, or reality. They recur to logic in discussion which lead to levels of deepness and abstraction.
Research manager:
Research managers oversee the research and development functions of a research facility or program or university. They support the executive staff, coordinate work activities, and monitor staff and research projects. They may work in a wide array of sectors, such as the chemical, technical and life sciences sector. Research managers can also advise on research and execute research themselves.
Geologist: Geologists research the materials that form the earth. Their observations depend on the purpose of the research. Depending on their specialisation, geologists study how the Earth has been shaped over time, its geological layers, the quality of minerals for mining purposes, earthquakes and volcanic activity for private services, and similar phenomena.
Computer scientist: Computer scientists conduct research in computer and information science, directed toward greater knowledge and understanding of fundamental aspects of ICT phenomena. They write research reports and proposals. Computer scientists also invent and design new approaches to computing technology, find innovative uses for existing technology and studies and solve complex problems in computing.
Biologist: Biologists study living organisms and life in its broader extent in combination with its environment. Through research, they strive to explain the functional mechanisms, interactions, and evolution of organisms.
Clinical informatics manager: Clinical informatics managers oversee the daily operations of information systems used in a medical institutions. They also carry out research, using their understanding of clinical practices to find ways to improve healthcare services.
Bacteriology technician: Bacteriology technicians provide technical assistance in researching and testing bacteria using laboratory equipment. They collect and analyse data for experiments, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.
Literary scholar: Literary scholars research works of literature, history of literature, genres, and literary criticism in order to appraise the works and the surrounding aspects in an appropriate context and to produce research results on specific topics in the field of literature.
Education policy officer: Education policy officers research, analyse and develop education policies, and implement these policies to improve the existing education system. They try to improve all aspects of education which will impact institutions such as schools, universities and vocational schools. They work closely with partners, external organisations or other stakeholders and provide them with regular updates.
Metrologist: Metrologists study and practice the science of measurement. They develop quantity systems, units of measurement and measuring methods to be used in science. Metrologists establish new methods and tools to quantify and better understand information.
Geology technician: Geology technicians assist in all the activities carried out by geologists. They, under the supervision of geologists, collect materials, carry out research and study the samples collected from the Earth in order to offer analysis as part of the project and the aim. Geology technicians assist in determining the value of the land for oil or gas exploration. They perform various technical tasks, including collecting samples during geochemical surveys, working on drill sites, and participating in geophysical surveys and geological studies.
Zoology technician: Zoology technicians provide technical assistance in researching and testing animal species using laboratory equipment. They aid in research concerning animals as well as their environments and ecosystems. They collect and analyse data, compile reports and maintain laboratory stock.
Demographer: Demographers study a variety of parameters related with population. They develop, based on their observations, statistical analyses on the evolutions and changes of births, elderly, marriage and divorce, employment, mortality, immigration and related matters.

Optional knowledge

Scientific research methodology is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.

Performing arts theatre instructor: Performing arts theatre instructors educate students in specific theory and, primarily, practice-based theatre courses at a specialised theatre, or acting, school or conservatory at a higher education level. They provide theoretical instruction in service of the practical skills and techniques the students must subsequently master in theatre. Performing arts theatre instructors monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate their knowledge and performance of theatre practice through assignments, tests and examinations.
Housing policy officer: Housing policy officers research, analyse and develop housing policies which enable affordable and adequate housing for all. They implement these policies to improve the housing situation of the population by measures such as building affordable housing, supporting people to buy real estate and improving conditions in existing housing. Housing policy officers work closely with partners, external organisations or other stakeholders and provide them with regular updates.
Economics lecturer: Economics lecturers are subject professors, assistant professors, teachers, lectures, assistant lecturers, mentors who instruct students in their own specialised field of study, economics. They develop curriculum, prepare classes (lectures, practical classes, seminars, trainings etc.), monitor learning outcomes, supervise student study path. They conduct academic research in their field of economics and present their findings at the conferences and in publications. They are involved in some university management functions.
Medicine lecturer: Medicine lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers, and often doctors who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, medicine, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams, for leading laboratory practices, and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of medicine, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Meteorology technician: Meteorology technicians collect large amounts of meteorological information for weather information users such as aviation companies or meteorological institutions. They operate specialised measuring instruments to make accurate weather predictions and report their observations. Meteorology technicians assist meteorologists in their scientific operations.
University teaching assistant: University teaching assistants are graduate students or recent graduates employed on a temporary contract at a university or a college for teaching-related responsibilities. They assist the professor, lecturer or teacher of the specific course they are in charge of in the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students.
Sociology lecturer: Sociology lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, sociology, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants
for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of sociology, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Translator: Translators transcribe written documents from one or more languages to another ensuring that the message and nuances therein remain in the translated material. They translate material backed up by an understanding of it, which can include commercial and industrial documentation, personal documents, journalism, novels, creative writing, and scientific texts delivering the translations in any format.
Nursing lecturer: Nursing lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers, and often doctors who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, nursing, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams, for leading laboratory practices, and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of nursing, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Meteorologist: Meteorologists study climate processes, measure and predict weather patterns and provide consultancy services to a variety of weather information users. They work out models for weather forecasting, develop instruments to collect meteorological data and compile statistics and databases.
Interpreter: Interpreters understand and convert spoken communication from one language to another. They retain considerable amounts of information, often with the aid of note-taking, and communicate it immediately after whilst keeping the nuances and stress of the message in the recipient language.
Regional development policy officer: Regional development policy officers research, analyse and develop regional development policies. They implement policies that aim at reducing regional disparities by fostering economic activities in a region and structural changes such as supporting multi-level governance, rural development and improvement of infrastructure. They work closely with partners, external organisations or other stakeholders and provide them with regular updates.
Business lecturer: Business lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, business, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants
for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of business, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Earth science lecturer: Earth science lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, earth science, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants in preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of earth science, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Competition policy officer: Competition policy officers manage the development of regional and national competition policies and law, in order to regulate competition and competitive practices, to encourage open and transparent trade practices and to protect consumers and businesses.
Economic policy officer: Economic policy officers develop economic strategies. They monitor aspects of economics such as competitiveness, innovation and trade. Economic policy officers contribute to the development of economic policies, projects and programs. They research, analyse and assess public policy problems and recommend appropriate actions.
Veterinary medicine lecturer: Veterinary medicine lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers, and often doctors who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, veterinary medicine, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams, for leading laboratory practices, and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of veterinary medicine, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Dentistry lecturer: Dentistry lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers, and often doctors who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, dentistry, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams, for leading laboratory practices, and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of dentistry, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Behavioural scientist: Behavioural scientists research, observe and describe human behaviour in society. They draw conclusions on the motives that stir actions in humans, observe the various circumstances for different behaviours, and describe different personalities. They advise organisations and governmental institutions on this field. They may also analyse the behaviour of animals.
Journalism lecturer: Journalism lecturers and media are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, journalism and media, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with theiruniversity research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of journalism and media, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Communications lecturer: Communications lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, communications, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of communications, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Social worker: Social workers are practice-based professionals who promote social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. They interact with individuals, families, groups, organisations and communities in order to provide various forms of therapy and counselling, group work, and community work. Social workers guide people to use services to claim benefits, access community resources, find jobs and training, obtain legal advice or deal with other local authority departments.
Architecture lecturer: Architecture lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, architecture, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of architecture, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Educational psychologist: Educational psychologists are psychologists employed by educational institutions to provide psychological and emotional support to students in need. They are specialised in the provision of direct support and interventions to students, conducting psychological testing and assessment, and consulting with families, teachers and other school-based student support professionals, such as school social workers and educational counsellors, about the students. They may also work with the school administration to improve practical support strategies in order to improve the students’ well-being.
Fiscal affairs policy officer: Fiscal policy officers research, analyse and develop policies related to taxation and government spending in public policy sectors, and implement these policies to improve the existing regulation around the sector. They work closely with partners, external organisations or other stakeholders and provide them with regular updates.  
Fine arts instructor: Fine arts instructors educate students in specific theory and, primarily, practice-based fine arts courses at a specialised fine arts school or conservatory at a higher education level, including drawing, painting and sculpturing. They provide theoretical instruction in service of the practical skills and techniques the students must subsequently master in the fine arts. Fine arts instructors monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate their knowledge and performance on the fine arts through, often practical, assignments, tests and examinations.
Pharmacy lecturer: Pharmacy lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, pharmacy, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants
for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for leading laboratory practices, grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of pharmacy, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Economic adviser: Economic advisers research economic developments and advise on economic problems. They forecast trends and behaviour in economics, and advise on finance, trade, fiscal and other related matters. They advise companies and organisations on techniques to gain economic profit.
Mechanical engineer: Mechanical engineers research, plan and design mechanical products and systems and supervise the fabrication, operation, application, installation and repair of systems and products. They research and analyse data.
Physics lecturer: Physics lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, physics, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants
for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for leading laboratory practices, grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of physics, publish their findings and liaise with>other university colleagues.
Legal policy officer: Legal affairs policy officers research, analyse and develop policies related to the legal sector and implement these policies to improve the existing regulation around the sector. They work closely with partners, external organisations or other stakeholders and provide them with regular updates.
Biology lecturer: Biology lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, biology. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants in the preparation of lectures and of exams, leading laboratory practices, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of biology, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Education studies lecturer: Education studies lecturers are professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, education studies, so they can become teachers themselves. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students.
Art studies lecturer: Art studies lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, art studies, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of arts studies, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Ombudsman: Ombudsmen resolve disputes between two parties where there is a power imbalance, as an impartial mediator. They interview the parties involved and investigate the case in order to come to a resolution beneficial to both parties. They advise on conflict resolution and offer support to clients. The claims are mostly against public institutions and authorities.
Higher education lecturer: Higher education lecturers instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, which is predominantly academic in nature. They may have job titles such as senior lecturer or professor. They work with their teaching and research assistants for the preparation of lectures and exams, for grading papers and exams, for leading laboratory practices, and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field, publish their findings and liaise with their academic colleagues.
Bioinformatics scientist: Bioinformatics scientists analyse biological processes using computer programmes. They maintain or construct databases containing biological information. Bioinformatics scientists gather and analyse biological data and may also assist scientists in various fields, including in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. They perform scientific research and statistical analyses, and report on their findings. Bioinformatics scientists may also collect DNA samples, discover data patterns and conduct genetic research.
Immigration policy officer: Immigration policy officers develop strategies for the integration of refugees and asylum seekers, and policies for the transit of people from one nation to another. They aim to improve international cooperation and communication on the subject of immigration, as well as efficiency of immigration and integration procedures.
Performing arts school dance instructor: Performing arts school dance instructors educate students in specific theory and, primarily, practice-based dance courses at a specialised dance school or conservatory at a higher education level. They provide theoretical instruction in service of the practical skills and techniques the students must subsequently master for dance. Performing arts school dance instructors monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate their knowledge and performance on the dance through, often practical, assignments, tests and examinations.
Chief technology officer: Chief technology officers contribute to a company’s technical vision and lead all aspects of technology development, according to its strategic direction and growth objectives. They match technology with business needs.
Interpretation agency manager: Interpretation agency managers oversee operations in the delivery of interpretation services. They coordinate the efforts of a team of interpreters who understand and convert spoken communication from one language to another. They ensure the quality of the service and the administration of the interpretation agency.
Psychology lecturer: Psychology lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, psychology, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of psychology, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Hydropower technician: Hydropower technicians install and maintain systems in hydropower plants. They perform inspections, analyse problems and carry out repairs. They ensure the turbines operate in compliance with regulations, and assist the hydropower engineers in the construction of turbines.
Music instructor: Music instructors educate students in specific theory and, primarily, practice-based music courses at a specialised music school or conservatory at a higher education level, including musical instruments and vocal training. They provide theoretical instruction in service of the practical skills and techniques the students must subsequently master in music. Music educators monitor the students’ progress, assist individually when necessary, and evaluate their knowledge and performance of music practice through assignments, tests and examinations.
Space science lecturer: Space science lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, space science, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of space science, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Political affairs officer: Political affairs officers analyse developments in foreign politics and other policy matters, monitor conflicts and consult on mediation measures, as well as other developmental strategies. They write reports to ensure communication with governmental bodies, and develop policies and implementation methods.
Social work lecturer: Social work lecturers are professionals who exercise dual roles, on one hand they practice the academic discipline that provides social services, such as counselling, therapy or advocacy, to individuals or groups of people and on the other hand they are part of the academic world providing professional education, engaging also in research and knowledge development, contributing to solutions concerning complex social problems and innovative approaches to ameliorate those problems. They teach social work knowledge, skills and values for preparing students to engage in culturally competent social work practice with diverse populations and communities.
Anthropology lecturer: Anthropology lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, anthropology, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of anthropology, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Agricultural policy officer: Agricultural policy officers analyse and identify agricultural policy issues and develop plans for improvement and new policy implementation. They write reports and presentations in order to communicate and acquire support for the policies from government officials and the public. They also communicate with professionals in agriculture for research and information purposes and perform administrative duties.
Food science lecturer: Food science lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, food science, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, grading papers and exams and leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their field of food science, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Sign language interpreter: Sign language interpreters understand and convert sign language into spoken language and vice versa. They maintain the nuances and the stress of the message in the recipient language.
University literature lecturer: University literature lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, literature, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants in the preparation of lectures and of exams, in grading papers and exams and in leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of literature, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Labour market policy officer: Labour market policy officers research, analyse and develop labour market policies. They implement policies ranging from financial policies to practical policies such as improving job searching mechanisms, promoting job training, giving incentives to start-ups and income support. Labour market policy officers work closely with partners, external organisations or other stakeholders and provide them with regular updates.
History lecturer: History lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, history, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of history, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Cartographer: Cartographers create maps by combining various scientific informations depending of the purpose of the map (e.g. topographic, urban, or political maps). They combine the interpretation of mathematical notes and measurements with the aesthetics and visual depiction of the site for developing the maps. They may also work on developing and improving geographic information systems and may perform scientific research within cartography.
Philosophy lecturer: Philosophy lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, philosophy, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of philosophy, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Healthcare specialist lecturer: Healthcare specialist lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers, and often doctors who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of healthcare, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams, for leading laboratory practices, and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of specialist healthcare, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.

 


 

References

  1. Scientific research methodology – ESCO

 

Last updated on September 20, 2022

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