Psychology

Description

The human behaviour and performance with individual differences in ability, personality, interests, learning, and motivation.

Alternative labels

psychological practice
study of human behaviour and performance

Skill type

knowledge

Skill reusability level

cross-sector

Relationships with occupations

Essential knowledge

Psychology is an essential knowledge of the following occupations:

Physiotherapist: Physiotherapists are autonomous health professionals who are responsible for developing, maintaining or restoring motor function and movement throughout the lifespan using evidence-based practice. They relieve pain and treat or prevent physical conditions associated with injury, disease or other impairments. Physiotherapists empower patients and their carers to manage the condition outside clinical settings. They work within their scope of practice and their professional Code of Conduct. 
Criminologist: Criminologists study conditions pertaining to humans such as the social and psychological aspects that could lead them to commit criminal acts. They observe and analyse different factors ranging from behavioural conditions up to social background and environment of suspects in order to advise organisations on the prevention of crime.
Occupational therapist: Occupational therapists assist individuals or groups who have occupational limitations due to diseases, physical disorders, and temporary or permanent mental disabilities, in regaining their ability to perform daily activities. They provide treatment and rehabilitation to enable them to actively participate in society, to live their lives according to their wishes and to perform those activities that are meaningful to them.
Behavioural scientist: Behavioural scientists research, observe and describe human behaviour in society. They draw conclusions on the motives that stir actions in humans, observe the various circumstances for different behaviours, and describe different personalities. They advise organisations and governmental institutions on this field. They may also analyse the behaviour of animals.
Chiropractor: Chiropractors are responsible for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders related to the neuromusculoskeletal system and the effects of these disorders on general health. They are independent primary health care professionals.
Educational psychologist: Educational psychologists are psychologists employed by educational institutions to provide psychological and emotional support to students in need. They are specialised in the provision of direct support and interventions to students, conducting psychological testing and assessment, and consulting with families, teachers and other school-based student support professionals, such as school social workers and educational counsellors, about the students. They may also work with the school administration to improve practical support strategies in order to improve the students’ well-being.
Psychologist: Psychologists study the behaviour and mental processes in humans. They provide services to clients who deal with mental health issues and life issues such as bereavement, relationship difficulties, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. They also provide counselling for mental health issues such as eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and psychosis in order to help the clients rehabilitate and reach a healthy behaviour.
Public housing manager: Public housing managers develop strategies for the improvement of housing policy in a community, as well as providing social housing to those in need. They identify housing needs and issues, and supervise resource allocation. They also communicate with organisations involved in building public housing facilities, and social service organisations.
Drug and alcohol addiction counsellor: Drug and alcohol addiction counsellors provide assistance and counselling to individuals and families dealing with drug and alcohol addictions, monitoring their progress, advocating for them, performing crisis interventions and group therapy. They also assist the persons with the consequences of their addictions which can be unemployment, physical or mental disorders and poverty. Drug and alcohol addiction counsellors may also prepare educational programs for high-risk populations.
Rescue centre manager: Rescue centre managers supervise operations of a rescue centre, performing administrative duties and supervision of staff. They ensure that the centre operates according to policies and staff perform rescue missions in a safe, efficient and compliant manner.
Graphologist: Graphologists analyse written or printed materials in order to draw conclusions and evidence about traits, personality, abilities and authorship of the writer. They interpret letter forms, the fashion of writing, and patterns in the writing.
Radiographer: Radiographers use a range of technologies to examine, treat and care for patients. They work in the fields of Medical Imaging, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine and apply ionising radiation, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and radioactive sources.
Orthoptist: Orthoptists diagnose and treat anomalies of binocular vision. They examine, assess and treat vision impairments, squint, amblyopia and eye motility disorders. Orthoptists apply these methods in particular in the fields of paediatrics, neurology, neuro-ophthalmology, ophthalmology, orthoptics, optometry, pleoptics and strabology assessing functional diseases of the eye for improving functional disorders of the visual system. They also provide counselling, preventive measures and training activities and may refract and prescribe glasses, such as prism corrective glasses.
 
Psychology lecturer: Psychology lecturers are subject professors, teachers, or lecturers who instruct students who have obtained an upper secondary education diploma in their own specialised field of study, psychology, which is predominantly academic in nature. They work with their university research assistants and university teaching assistants for the preparation of lectures and of exams, for grading papers and exams and for leading review and feedback sessions for the students. They also conduct academic research in their respective field of psychology, publish their findings and liaise with other university colleagues.
Speech and language therapist: Speech and language therapists focus on the aetiology, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in people of all ages in order to help them maintain, promote, improve, initiate, or recover the ability to communicate both verbally and nonverbally. They address the development of language, speech, vocal and hearing functions, and disorders and disabilities in the cranial, facial, and oral area.
Family planning counsellor: Family planning counsellors provide support and counselling to adults and adolescents on issues such as reproduction, contraceptive methods, pregnancy or termination of pregnancy, in compliance with the legislation and practices. They also provide information about maintaining optimum health practices, sexual disease prevention and treatment recommendation referrals, working in collaboration with the professional doctors.
Dietitian: Dietitians assess specific nutritional requirements of populations or individuals throughout their lives and translate this into advice which will maintain, reduce risk to, or restore people’s health. Using evidence-based approaches, dietitians work to empower individuals, families and groups to provide or select food which is nutritionally adequate, safe, tasty and sustainable. Beyond healthcare, dietitians improve the nutritional environment for all through governments, industry, academia and research.
Nurse responsible for general care: Nurses responsible for general care are in charge of promoting and restoring patients` health by providing physical and psychological support to patients, friends, and families. They also supervise assigned team members.
Midwife: Midwives assist women in childbirth by providing the necessary support, care and advice during pregnancy, labour and the postpartum period, conduct births and provide care for the new-born. They advise on health, preventive measures, preparation for parenthood, detection of complications in mother and child, accessing of medical care, promoting normal birth and carrying out emergency measures.
Health psychologist: Health psychologists deal with the various aspects of health related behaviour of individuals and groups, by helping individuals or groups prevent illness and promote healthy behaviours by also providing counseling services. They perform tasks for the development of health promotion activities and projects on the basis of psychological science, research findings, theories, methods and techniques. They also engage in research about health related issues to influence public policy on health care issues.
Thanatology researcher: Thanatology researchers study death and the dying in a variety of scientific fields such as psychology, sociology, physiology and anthropology. They contribute to the growth of knowledge on aspects of death such as the psychological phenomena the dying and those around them are experiencing.
Marriage counsellor: Marriage counsellors support and guide couples and families that are going through crises such as depression, substance abuse and relationship problems. They help improving their communication by providing group or individual therapy.
Psychotherapist: Psychotherapists assist and treat healthcare users with varying degrees of psychological, psychosocial, or psychosomatic behavioural disorders and pathogenic conditions by means of psychotherapeutic methods. They promote personal development and well-being and provide advice on improving relationships, capabilities, and problem-solving techniques. They use science-based psychotherapeutic methods such as behavioural therapy, existential analysis and logotherapy, psychoanalysis or systemic family therapy in order to guide the patients in their development and help them search for appropriate solutions to their problems. Psychotherapists are not required to have academic degrees in psychology or a medical qualification in psychiatry. It is an independent occupation from psychology, psychiatry, and counselling.
Sexual violence counsellor: Sexual violence counsellors provide support services, crisis care services and counselling to women and adolescents who have been directly or indirectly exposed to sexual assault and/or rape. They inform victims of the relevant legal procedures and protective services maintaining client confidentiality. They also address problematic sexualized behaviours of children.
Specialist chiropractor: Specialist chiropractors have an advanced knowledge and understanding in a specific chiropractic area, acquiring complex decision making skills and clinical competency within the scope of the chiropractic profession. Specialist chiropractors may have undertaken an advanced course of studies to acquire the necessary skills and competency and qualification. Specialist chiropractors may be found in different specific fields such as education, functional neurology, orthopaedics, paediatrics, research, radiology, sport.
 
Social services manager: Social services managers have the responsibility for strategic and operational leadership and management of staff teams and resources within and or across social services. They are responsible for the implementation of legislation and policies relating to, for example, decisions about vulnerable people. They promote social work and social care values and ethics, equality and diversity, and relevant codes guiding practice. They are responsible for liaising with other professionals in criminal justice, education and health. They can be responsible for contributing to local and national policy development.
Clinical psychologist: Clinical psychologists diagnose, rehabilitate, and support individuals affected by mental, emotional, and behavioural disorders and problems as well as mental changes and pathogenic conditions through use of cognitive tools and appropriate intervention. They use clinical psychological resources on the basis of psychological science, its findings, theories, methods, and techniques for the investigation, interpretation, and prediction of human experience and behaviour.
Assistant clinical psychologist: Assistant clinical psychologists aid psychologists in their work. They work in healthcare facilities or private practices where they assist psychologists with their treatment of patients. Assistant clinical psychologists are healthcare professionals that can assess patients with psychological tests and aid with therapy, as well as performing administrative functions.
Elderly home manager: Elderly home managers oversee, plan, organise and evaluate the provision of elderly care services for people who are in need of these services due to the effects of ageing. They manage the elderly care home and supervise the activities of the staff.
Youth centre manager: Youth centre managers plan and supervise the operations of children and youth homes which provide care and counselling services. They assess the needs for youths in the community, develop and implement pedagogical methods, and develop programs for the improvement of youth care in the centre.
Bereavement counsellor: Bereavement counsellors support and guide patients and their families to better cope with the death of the loved ones by assisting them in emergent situations, at the hospices and at the memorial services. They train other professionals and communities anticipating the supportive needs of bereavement and responding to the education requirements.
Social pedagogue: Social pedagogues provide care, support, and education to children and young persons with different backgrounds or capabilities. They develop educational processes for young persons to be in charge of their own experiences, using a multi-disciplinary approach set to the learning experience. Social pedagogues contribute to the individuals’ learning, welfare, and societal inclusion, and put an emphasis on building self-reliance.
Child day care centre manager: Child day care centre managers provide social services to children and their families. They supervise and support child care workers and manage the childcare facilities. Child day care centre managers have the responsibility for strategic and operational leadership and management of staff teams and resources within and or across child care services.

Optional knowledge

Psychology is optional for these occupations. This means knowing this knowledge may be an asset for career advancement if you are in one of these occupations.

Kinesiologist: Kinesiologists study and research the movement of the body; its muscles and parts. They analyse and use scientific data and methods to improve body motion, generally in humans, through an understanding of such areas as physiology, kinetics, neurology, and biology. They recognise the effects that some factors, such as body condition, have on motion and develop solutions to improve overall mechanics and mobility.
Educational counsellor: Educational counsellors provide practical and emotional support to students in a educational institution, either in small groups, classrooms, or individually. They function as an accessible school official whom students may contact for a wide variety of issues. Educational counsellors may provide advice on personal problems such as social integration and behavioural issues, and on school-related matters such as composing adequate curriculum schedules, discussing test scores, and informing students on further education options. They may work closely with a school social worker and/or school psychologist and make referrals to other support services if necessary.
Medium: Mediums claim to act as communicators between the natural world and the spiritual world.  They convey statements or images which they claim have been provided by spirits and that can have significant personal and often private meanings to their client.
 
Learning mentor: Learning mentors support underperforming students both inside and outside of the classroom in order to increase their academic success. They assist students experiencing (multiple) disadvantages, such as learning difficulties, behavioural issues, and attendance problems, and also assist gifted students who are under-challenged. They may also work with adult students in the further education system. Learning mentors develop schedules and action plans with the students in order to plan the necessary mentoring activities and monitor progress. They also liaise with the students’ teachers, educational psychologists, school social workers and, if necessary, with the student’s parents, in order to improve the student’s educational development.
Social counsellor: Social counsellors provide support and guidance to individuals in the social work area, to help them solve specific problems in their personal life. It involves addressing personal and relationship issues, dealing with inner conflicts, crisis moments such as depression and addiction, in an attempt to empower individuals to achieve change and improve their life quality.
Educational researcher: Educational researches perform research in the area of education. They strive to broaden the knowledge on how education processes, educational systems, and individuals (teachers and learners) work. They foresee areas of improvements and develop plans for the implementation of innovations. They advise legislators and policy makers on educational issues and assist in the planning of educational policies.
Career guidance advisor: Career guidance advisors provide guidance and advice to adults and students on making educational, training and occupational choices and assist people in managing their careers, through career planning and career exploration. They help identify options for future careers, assist beneficiaries in the development of their curriculum and help people reflect on their ambitions, interests and qualifications. Career guidance advisors may provide advice on various career planning issues and make suggestions for lifelong learning if necessary, including study recommendations. They may also assist the individual in the search for a job.
Nuclear medicine radiographer: Nuclear Medicine Radiographers plan, prepare and perform nuclear medicine examinations, post-processing and treatment with a wide range of equipment and techniques using X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and radiopharmaceuticals.
Homeopath: Homeopaths treat clients based on the selection and prescription of homeopathic remedies using the homeopathy principle of “like cures like.”
 
Market research analyst: Market research analysts collect the information gathered in the market research and study it to draw conclusions. They define the potential customers of a product, the target group and the way they can be reached. Market research analysts analyse the position of products in the market from different perspectives such as features, prices and competitors. They analyse cross selling and interdependencies between different products and their placement. Market research analysts prepare information helpful for the development of marketing strategies.
Aromatherapist: Aromatherapists use essential oils extracted from herbal products at the level of the interface skin and mucous membranes to improve the clients` well-being. They treat a variety of illnesses and physical or psychological conditions, under supervision and on a doctor’s order.
Market research interviewer:
Market research interviewers strive to collect information on the perceptions, opinions, and preferences of customers in relation to commercial products or services. They use interview techniques to draw as much information as possible by contacting people via telephone calls, by approaching them face-to-face or by by virtual means. They pass this information to experts for drawing analysis.
Dance therapist: Dance therapists support individuals with their emotional, mental or physical health problems helping them to improve their body awareness, self-esteem, social integration and personal development through dance and movement patterns within a therapeutic environment.
Diagnostic radiographer: Diagnostic radiographers plan, prepare and perform diagnostic imaging examinations and post processing, with a wide range of equipment and techniques using X-rays, strong magnetic fields or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and high frequency sound (Ultrasound).
Polygraph examiner: Polygraph examiners prepare individuals for polygraph testing, conduct the polygraph exam and interpret the results. They pay close attention to detail and use a range of instruments to monitor respiratory, sweat and cardiovascular responses to questions addressed during the process. Polygraph examiners write reports on the basis of the results and can provide courtroom testimony.
Intercultural communication consultant: Intercultural communication consultants specialise in social interaction between parties of different cultures, advise organisations on international interactions in order to optimise their performance, and facilitiate cooperation and positive interaction with organisations and individuals from other cultures.
Survey enumerator: Survey enumerators perform interviews and fill in forms in order to collect the data provided by interviewees. They can collect information by phone, mail, personal visits or on the street. They conduct and help the interviewees administer the information that the interviewer is interested in having, usually related to demographic information for governmental statistical purposes.
Therapeutic radiographer: Therapeutic radiographers prepare and perform safe and accurate high-energy radiation treatments to patients, using a wide range of sophisticated equipment and techniques, to target the area to be treated, and computer planning to produce a plan of the dose distribution across the area to be treated.
Academic advisor: Academic advisors assist students, at post-secondary level, in recognising and achieving their educational goals. They advise students on their schedule selection of school programmes, communicate to them degree requirements, and assist them in career planning. Academic advisors also discuss the student’s academic performance and its implications and make suggestions for improvement including study advice. They also work closely with other university administrators and professors and ensure they are up to date on university or college regulation, program, or requirement changes.
Complementary therapist: Complementary therapists use a range of complementary and alternative therapies to work simultaneously with the clients` body, mind, and spirit in a holistic approach. They offer practices and services for holistic wellbeing, health maintenance, health education, health promotion and prevention of illness, along with the sustainable treatment of certain illnesses, especially chronic illnesses. Their practices include but are not limited to acupuncture, aromatherapy, banotherapy, homeopathy, and herbal medicine.
Dating service consultant: Dating service consultants provide support to clients in searching and finding a partner and setting up the date. They provide personalised advice to help clients meet their dating objectives. They also work in the virtual environment where they assist the online users in managing personal profiles, sending messages, and making connections.
Recreational therapist: Recreational therapists offer treatment to persons who have behavioural disorders or conditions. They use techniques and interventions such as art, music, animals and dance to promote, maintain and restore the development and health of the patient.

 


 

References

  1. Psychology – ESCO

 

Last updated on September 20, 2022

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