Hawkers sell goods and services on established routes, street and market locations.
The duties of a hawker include, but are not limited to:
- obtaining permission or a licence, where required, to sell goods and services on the street or in a public place
- obtaining goods and services for sale
- preparing on the spot goods and services for sale
- displaying and selling goods and services, and accepting payment
- washing and cleaning the selling spot when the work is over
Hawkers spend most of their time outdoors. They may stand for long periods of time in various weather conditions. Sometimes, they may work indoors, for example in indoor markets.
Depending on the country, hawkers are usually located in high traffic areas, such as markets, city centers, or busy roadsides. As a consequence, their work schedule is very flexible, as it is based on the affluence of the places where they operate.
The following job titles also refer to hawker:
market stall trader
car-boot sale trader
indoor market trader
outdoor market trader
No formal educational credential is required to work as a hawker.
In some areas, hawkers need a licence issued by local authorities to sell their goods or services in public areas.
ISCO skill level
ISCO skill level is defined as a function of the complexity and range of tasks and duties to be performed in an occupation. It is measured on a scale from 1 to 4, with 1 the lowest level and 4 the highest, by considering:
- the nature of the work performed in an occupation in relation to the characteristic tasks and duties
- the level of formal education required for competent performance of the tasks and duties involved and
- the amount of informal on-the-job training and/or previous experience in a related occupation required for competent performance of these tasks and duties.
Hawker is a Skill level 1 occupation.
Hawker career path
These occupations, although different, require a lot of knowledge and skills similar to hawker.
Long term prospects
These occupations require some skills and knowledge of hawker. They also require other skills and knowledge, but at a higher ISCO skill level, meaning these occupations are accessible from a position of hawker with a significant experience and/or extensive training.
Essential knowledge and skills
This knowledge should be acquired through learning to fulfill the role of hawker.
- Sales argumentation: Techniques and sales methods used in order to present a product or service to customers in a persuasive manner and to meet their expectations and needs.
- Consumer protection: The current legislation applicable in relation to the rights of consumers in the marketplace.
- Product comprehension: The offered products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
Essential skills and competences
These skills are necessary for the role of hawker.
- Guarantee customer satisfaction: Handle customer expectations in a professional manner, anticipating and addressing their needs and desires. Provide flexible customer service to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty.
- Ensure customer focus: Take actions which support business activities by considering client needs and satisfaction. This can be translated into developing a quality product appreciated by customers or dealing with community issues.
- Unload supplies: Remove deliveries from a truck and move new supplies to workplace or storage area.
- Upsell products: Persuade customers to buy additional or more expensive products.
- Adapt to different weather conditions: Cope with regular exposure to extreme weather conditions and hazardous environments.
- Use different communication channels: Make use of various types of communication channels such as verbal, handwritten, digital and telephonic communication with the purpose of constructing and sharing ideas or information.
- Maintain work area cleanliness: Keep the working area and equipment clean and orderly.
- Assist customers: Provide support and advice to customers in making purchasing decisions by finding out their needs, selecting suitable service and products for them and politely answering questions about products and services.
- Organise product display: Arrange goods in attractive and safe way. Set up a counter or other display area where demonstrations take place in order to attract the attention of prospective customers. Organise and maintain stands for merchandise display. Create and assemble sales spot and product displays for sales process.
- Ensure product preparation: Ensure that products such as food items are correctly prepared and made ready for consumption; combine different parts until they form one sellable unit.
- Negotiate price: Arrange an agreement on price of products or services provided or offered.
- Process payments: Accept payments such as cash, credit cards and debit cards. Handle reimbursement in case of returns or administer vouchers and marketing instruments such as bonus cards or membership cards. Pay attention to safety and the protection of personal data.
- Carry out active selling: Deliver thoughts and ideas in impactful and influencing manner to persuade customers to become interested in new products and promotions. Persuade clients that a product or service will satisfy their needs.
- Apply health and safety standards: Adhere to standards of hygiene and safety established by respective authorities.
- Demonstrate products’ features: Demonstrate how to use a product in a correct and safe manner, provide customers with information on the product’s main features and benefits, explain operation, correct use and maintenance. Persuade potential customers to purchase items.
- Perform manual work autonomously: Show the ability to pursue basic manual tasks without the help or assistance of others, not needing supervision or guidance, and taking responsibility for one’s actions.
Optional knowledge and skills
This knowledge is sometimes, but not always, required for the role of hawker. However, mastering this knowledge allows you to have more opportunities for career development.
- Cold chain: The temperature at which certain products are to be kept for consumption.
- Characteristics of faces: The various typologies and forms of faces in order to advise customers on the most suitable types of glasses.
- Footwear industry: Major brands, manufacturers and products available on the footwear market including the different types of shoes, components and materials used.
- Clothing sizes: Sizes of clothing items in order to make appropriate suggestions to customers.
- Clothing and footwear products: The offered clothing and footwear products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Electronic and telecommunication equipment: The offered electronic and telecommunication equipment and products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Textile industry: Major textile manufacturers on the market of various brands and materials.
- Tobacco products: The varieties of products that can be manufactured using tobacco leaves as a base. The types of tobacco products which are smoked tobacco products, smokeless tobacco products, and byproducts of tobacco leaves.
- Telecommunication industry: The major players on the telecommunications market such as organisations manufacturing and distributing telephone terminal equipment, mobile devices, accessibility, and network security.
- Dairy and edible oil products: The offered dairy products and edible oil products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Fish, crustacean and mollusc products: The offered fish, crustacean and mollusc products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Sugar, chocolate and sugar confectionery products: The offered sugar, chocolate and sugar confectionery products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Textile products, textile semi-finished products and raw materials: The offered textile products, textile semi-finished products and raw materials, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Fabric types: Woven, non-woven, knitted fabrics and netting fabrics, technical fabrics such as Gore-Tex and Gannex.
- Sales promotion techniques: The techniques used to persuade customers to purchase a product or a service.
- Market participants: The businesses, relations and opportunities of different participants in the market.
- Hides, skins and leather products: The offered hides, skins and leather products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Manufacturer’s recommended price: The estimated price the manufacturer suggests the retailer to apply to a product or service and the pricing method through which it is calculated.
- Meat and meat products: The offered meat and meat products, their properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Beverage products: The offered beverage products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Fruit and vegetable products: The offered fruit and vegetable products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Electrical household appliances products: The offered electrical household appliances products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Value-added tax law: Taxes imposed on the purchase prices of goods and the legislation that governs this activity.
- Watches and jewellery products: The offered watches and jewellery products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Textile trends: Latest developments in textile fabrics and textile methods.
- Coffee, tea, cocoa and spice products: The offered coffee, tea, cocoa and spice products, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Floral composition techniques: The different ways of combining flowers and plants, according to ornamental techniques.
- Electronic communication: Data communication performed through digital means such as computers, telephone or e-mail.
- Features of sporting equipment: Types of sporting, fitness and recreational equipment and sporting supplies and their characteristics.
- Household products: The offered household products or goods, their functionalities, properties and legal and regulatory requirements.
- Types of watches: Types of wristwatches, such as mechanical and quartz, their features and functions, such as calendar, chronograph, water resistance, etc.
- Sales strategies: The principles concerning customer behaviour and target markets with the aim of promotion and sales of a product or a service.
- Fish varieties: The different types and varieties of fish on the market.
Optional skills and competences
These skills and competences are sometimes, but not always, required for the role of hawker. However, mastering these skills and competences allows you to have more opportunities for career development.
- Operate cash register: Register and handle cash transactions by using point of sale register.
- Operate cash point: Count the money; balance cash drawer at the end of the shift; receive payments and process payment information; use scanning equipment.
- Speak dialect: Interact with customers in local dialect.
- Prevent theft: Anticipate on theft and robbery. Prevent goods, cash or individuals from being stolen or damaged.
- Utilise cross-selling: Apply sales techniques to sell additional products or services to current customers.
ISCO group and title
9520 – Street vendors (excluding food)
- Hawker – ESCO
- Street Hawkers – commerce.gov.mt
- HawkersSkills and Knowledge – MyMajors
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